Videos uploaded by user “Audiopedia”
What is PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM, What does PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM mean, PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM meaning, PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM definition, PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM explanation Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast and resolution of the film.[1] The emulsion will gradually darken if left exposed to light, but the process is too slow and incomplete to be of any practical use. Instead, a very short exposure to the image formed by a camera lens is used to produce only a very slight chemical change, proportional to the amount of light absorbed by each crystal. This creates an invisible latent image in the emulsion, which can be chemically developed into a visible photograph. In addition to visible light, all films are sensitive to ultraviolet, X-rays and high-energy particles. Unmodified silver halide crystals are sensitive only to the blue part of the visible spectrum, producing unnatural-looking renditions of some colored subjects. This problem was resolved with the discovery that certain dyes, called sensitizing dyes, when adsorbed onto the silver halide crystals made them respond to other colors as well. First orthochromatic (sensitive to blue and green) and finally panchromatic (sensitive to all visible colors) films were developed. Panchromatic film renders all colors in shades of gray approximately matching their subjective brightness. By similar techniques, special-purpose films can be made sensitive to the infrared (IR) region of the spectrum.[2] In black-and-white photographic film, there is usually one layer of silver halide crystals. When the exposed silver halide grains are developed, the silver halide crystals are converted to metallic silver, which blocks light and appears as the black part of the film negative. Color film has at least three sensitive layers, incorporating different combinations of sensitizing dyes. Typically the blue-sensitive layer is on top, followed by a yellow filter layer to stop any remaining blue light from affecting the layers below. Next comes a green-and-blue sensitive layer, and a red-and-blue sensitive layer, which record the green and red images respectively. During development, the exposed silver halide crystals are converted to metallic silver, just as with black-and-white film. But in a color film, the by-products of the development reaction simultaneously combine with chemicals known as color couplers that are included either in the film itself or in the developer solution to form colored dyes. Because the by-products are created in direct proportion to the amount of exposure and development, the dye clouds formed are also in proportion to the exposure and development. Following development, the silver is converted back to silver halide crystals in the bleach step. It is removed from the film during the process of fixing the image on the film with a solution of ammonium thiosulfate or sodium thiosulfate (hypo or fixer).[3] Fixing leaves behind only the formed color dyes, which combine to make up the colored visible image. Later color films, like Kodacolor II, have as many as 12 emulsion layers,[4] with upwards of 20 different chemicals in each layer. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is EXACT SCIENCES, What does EXACT SCIENCES mean, EXACT SCIENCES meaning, EXACT SCIENCES definition, EXACT SCIENCES explanation The exact sciences, sometimes called the exact mathematical sciences[1] are those sciences "which admit of absolute precision in their results"; especially the mathematical sciences.[2] Examples of the exact sciences are mathematics, optics, astronomy, and physics, which many philosophers from Descartes, Leibniz, and Kant to the logical positivists took as paradigms of rational and objective knowledge.[3] These sciences have been practiced in many cultures from Antiquity[4][5] to modern times.[6][7] Given their ties to mathematics, the exact sciences are characterized by accurate quantitative expression, precise predictions and/or rigorous methods of testing hypotheses involving quantifiable predictions and measurements. The distinction between the quantitative exact sciences and those sciences which deal with the causes of things is due to Aristotle, who distinguished mathematics from natural philosophy and considered the exact sciences to be the "more natural of the branches of mathematics."[8] Thomas Aquinas employed this distinction when he pointed out that astronomy explains the spherical shape of the Earth by mathematical reasoning while physics explains it by material causes.[9] This distinction was widely, but not universally, accepted until the scientific revolution of the Seventeenth Century.[10] Edward Grant has proposed that a fundamental change leading to the new sciences was the unification of the exact sciences and physics by Kepler, Newton, and others, which resulted in a quantitative investigation of the physical causes of natural phenomena.[11] Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is MINERAL? MINERAL Definition & Meaning
What is MINERAL, What does MINERAL mean, MINERAL meaning, MINERAL definition, MINERAL explanation A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound,[1] usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy. As of March 2018, there are more than 5,500 known mineral species;[2] 5,312 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA).[3] Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed. Changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals. Within a mineral species there may be variation in physical properties or minor amounts of impurities that are recognized by mineralogists or wider society as a mineral variety,[4] for example amethyst, a purple variety of the mineral species quartz. Minerals can be described by their various physical properties, which are related to their chemical structure and composition. Common distinguishing characteristics include crystal structure and habit, hardness, lustre, diaphaneity, colour, streak, tenacity, cleavage, fracture, parting, specific gravity, magnetism, taste or smell, radioactivity, and reaction to acid. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is RELIGION? RELIGION Definition & Meaning
What is RELIGION? What does RELIGION mean? RELIGION meaning - RELIGION definition - RELIGION explanation. Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion.[1][2] Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine[3], sacred things[4], faith[5], a supernatural being or supernatural beings[6] or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life".[7] Religious practices may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration (of deities), sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, music, art, dance, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, and symbols and holy places, that aim mostly to give a meaning to life. Religions may contain symbolic stories, which are sometimes said by followers to be true, that have the side purpose of explaining the origin of life, the universe, and other things. Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has been considered a source of religious beliefs.[8] There are an estimated 10,000 distinct religions worldwide,[9] but about 84% of the world's population is affiliated with one of the five largest religion groups, namely Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism or forms of folk religion.[10] The religiously unaffiliated demographic includes those who do not identify with any particular religion, atheists and agnostics. While the religiously unaffiliated have grown globally, many of the religiously unaffiliated still have various religious beliefs.[11] The study of religion encompasses a wide variety of academic disciplines, including theology, comparative religion and social scientific studies. Theories of religion offer various explanations for the origins and workings of religion, including the ontological foundations of religious being and belief. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION? What does COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION mean? COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION meaning - COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION definition - COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION explanation. Community organization covers a series of activities at the community level aimed at bringing about desired improvement in the social well being of individuals, groups and neighborhoods. It is being often used synonymous to community work, community development and community mobilization. It can represent both community-based organizations, operating as civil society non-profits, and also as a function of organizing within communities defined by geographical location, shared work space, and/or shared experience or concerns. Community organizing is a democratic instrument to create sustained social change. Community organization is a process by which a community identifies needs or objectives orders these needs or objectives and takes action, and in so doing... develops a co-operative and collaborative attitudes and practices within the community. (Murray G. Ross, 1967). Within community-based organizations, there are many variations in terms of size and organizational structure. Some are formally incorporated, with a written constitution and a board of directors (also known as a committee), while others are much smaller and are more informal. Community based organizations often incorporate the processes of community organization, the action that usually comes from these organizations have power to address the issues that affect the individuals in the society and within their social institutions, as well as community development. The recent evolution of community organizations, especially in developing countries, has strengthened the view that these "bottom-up" organizations are more effective addressing local needs than larger charitable organizations.[1] It is not the multiplicity of institutions, interest groups or set of activities which embodies community organization. But the factors like interaction, integration and co-ordination of the existing institutions, interest groups and activities, and evolving new groups and institutions, if necessary to meet the changing conditions and needs of the community. Community organization is known to lead to greater understanding of community context, and is characterized by community planning, community action and mobilization, the promotion of community change and, ultimately, influence within larger systems.[2] Community organisations are generally not-for-profit and money raised usually goes back into supporting the activities of the organisation. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is TRICK-OR-TREATING, What does TRICK-OR-TREATING mean, TRICK-OR-TREATING meaning, TRICK-OR-TREATING definition, TRICK-OR-TREATING explanation Trick-or-treating is a Halloween ritual custom for children and adults in many countries. Children in costumes travel from house to house, asking for treats with the phrase "Trick or treat". The "treat" is usually some form of candy, although in some cultures money is used instead. The "trick" refers to a threat, usually idle, to perform mischief on the homeowners or their property if no treat is given. Trick-or-treating usually occurs on the evening of October 31. Some homeowners signal that they are willing to hand out treats by putting up Halloween decorations outside their doors; others simply leave treats available on their porches for the children to take freely. Houses may also leave their porch light on as a universal indicator that they have candy. In North America, trick-or-treating has been a Halloween tradition since the late 1920s. In Britain and Ireland the tradition of going house to house collecting food at Halloween goes back at least as far as the 16th century, as had the tradition of people wearing costumes at Halloween. In 19th century Britain and Ireland, there are many accounts of people going house to house in costume at Halloween, reciting verses in exchange for food, and sometimes warning of misfortune if they were not welcomed.[1] The Scottish Halloween custom of "guising" – children disguised in costume going from house to house for food or money;[2] – is first recorded in North America in 1911 in Ontario, Canada.[3] While going house to house in costume has remained popular among Scots and Irish, the custom of saying "trick or treat" has only recently become common. The activity is prevalent in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Puerto Rico, and northwestern and central Mexico. In the latter, this practice is called calaverita (Spanish for "sugar skull"), and instead of "trick or treat", the children ask, "¿Me da mi calaverita?" ("Can you give me my sugar skull?"), where a calaverita is a small skull made of sugar or chocolate. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING (IPO)? What does INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING (IPO) mean? INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING (IPO) meaning - INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING (IPO) definition - INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING (IPO) explanation. Initial public offering (IPO) or stock market launch is a type of public offering in which shares of a company are sold to institutional investors[1] and usually also retail (individual) investors; an IPO is underwritten by one or more investment banks, who also arrange for the shares to be listed on one or more stock exchanges. Through this process, colloquially known as floating, or going public, a privately held company is transformed into a public company. Initial public offerings can be used: to raise new equity capital for the company concerned; to monetize the investments of private shareholders such as company founders or private equity investors; and to enable easy trading of existing holdings or future capital raising by becoming publicly traded enterprises. After the IPO, shares traded freely in the open market are known as the free float. Stock exchanges stipulate a minimum free float both in absolute terms (the total value as determined by the share price multiplied by the number of shares sold to the public) and as a proportion of the total share capital (i.e., the number of shares sold to the public divided by the total shares outstanding). Although IPO offers many benefits, there are also significant costs involved, chiefly those associated with the process such as banking and legal fees, and the ongoing requirement to disclose important and sometimes sensitive information. Details of the proposed offering are disclosed to potential purchasers in the form of a lengthy document known as a prospectus. Most companies undertake an IPO with the assistance of an investment banking firm acting in the capacity of an underwriter. Underwriters provide several services, including help with correctly assessing the value of shares (share price) and establishing a public market for shares (initial sale). Alternative methods such as the Dutch auction have also been explored and applied for several IPOs. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is ASTRONOMER? ASTRONOMER Definition & Meaning
What is ASTRONOMER, What does ASTRONOMER mean, ASTRONOMER meaning, ASTRONOMER definition, ASTRONOMER explanation An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe astronomical objects such as stars, planets, moons, comets, and galaxies – in either observational (by analyzing the data) or theoretical astronomy. Examples of topics or fields astronomers study include planetary science, solar astronomy, the origin or evolution of stars, or the formation of galaxies. Related but distinct subjects like physical cosmology, which studies the Universe as a whole. Astronomers usually fall under either of two main types: observational and theoretical. Observational astronomers make direct observations of celestial objects and analyze the data. In contrast, theoretical astronomers create and investigate models of things that cannot be observed. Because it takes millions to billions of years for a system of stars or a galaxy to complete a life cycle, astronomers must observe snapshots of different systems at unique points in their evolution to determine how they form, evolve, and die. They use these data to create models or simulations to theorize how different celestial objects work. Further subcategories under these two main branches of astronomy include planetary astronomy, galactic astronomy, or physical cosmology. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is SPATIAL ECONOMETRICS, What does SPATIAL ECONOMETRICS mean, SPATIAL ECONOMETRICS meaning, SPATIAL ECONOMETRICS definition, SPATIAL ECONOMETRICS explanation Spatial econometrics is the field where spatial analysis and econometrics intersect. The term “spatial econometrics” was introduced for the first time by the Belgian economist Jean Paelinck (universally recognised as the father of the discipline) in the general address he delivered to the annual meeting of the Dutch Statistical Association in May 1974 (Paelinck and Klaassen, 1979). In general, econometrics differs from other branches of statistics in focusing on theoretical models, whose parameters are estimated using regression analysis. Spatial econometrics is a refinement of this, where either the theoretical model involves interactions between different entities, or the data observations are not truly independent. Thus, models incorporating spatial auto-correlation or neighborhood effects can be estimated using spatial econometric methods. Such models are common in regional science, real estate economics, education economics, housing market and many others. Adopting a more general view, in the by-law of the Spatial Econometrics Association, the discipline is defined as the set of “models and theoretical instruments of spatial statistics and spatial data analysis to analyse various economic effects such as externalities, interactions, spatial concentration and many others” (Spatial Econometrics Association, 2006). Recent developments tend to include also methods and models from social network econometrics. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is IUPAC? IUPAC Definition & Meaning
What is IUPAC? What does IUPAC mean? IUPAC meaning - IUPAC definition - IUPAC explanation. IUPAC (viết tắt của tên riêng tiếng Anh International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, tạm dịch: Liên minh Quốc tế về Hóa học thuần túy và Hóa học ứng dụng) là tổ chức phi chính phủ được thành lập vào năm 1919 bởi các nhà hóa học nhằm mục đích thúc đẩy sự phát triển của khoa học hóa học. Thành viên IUPAC có thể là các hội hóa học, các viện hàn lâm khoa học của các nước hoặc các tổ chức đại diện cho giới hóa học gia. Danh pháp IUPAC được toàn thế giới công nhận làm cơ sở để đặt danh pháp cho các nguyên tố và hợp chất hóa học. Trụ sở IUPAC đóng tại Zürich, Thụy Sĩ. Văn phòng điều hành (Ban thư ký IUPAC) đóng tại Research Triangle Park, Bắc Carolina, Hoa Kỳ; văn phòng này do giám đốc điều hành của IUPAC đứng đầu.[2] Chủ tịch IUPAC từ năm 2017 là Qi-Feng Zhou từ Trung Quốc [1], năm 2015 là Mark Cesa từ Hoa Kỳ [3]. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is BUTTERFLY EFFECT, What does BUTTERFLY EFFECT mean, BUTTERFLY EFFECT meaning, BUTTERFLY EFFECT definition, BUTTERFLY EFFECT explanation In chaos theory, the butterfly effect is the sensitive dependence on initial conditions in which a small change in one state of a deterministic nonlinear system can result in large differences in a later state.[1] The term, coined by Edward Lorenz, is derived from the metaphorical example of the details of a tornado (the exact time of formation, the exact path taken) being influenced by minor perturbations such as the flapping of the wings of a distant butterfly several weeks earlier. Lorenz discovered the effect when he observed that runs of his weather model with initial condition data that was rounded in a seemingly inconsequential manner would fail to reproduce the results of runs with the unrounded initial condition data. A very small change in initial conditions had created a significantly different outcome.[2] Though Lorenz gave a name to the phenomenon, the idea that small causes may have large effects in general and in weather specifically was earlier recognized by French mathematician and engineer Henri Poincaré and American mathematician and philosopher Norbert Wiener. Edward Lorenz's work placed the concept of instability of the earth's atmosphere onto a quantitative base and linked the concept of instability to the properties of large classes of dynamic systems which are undergoing nonlinear dynamics and deterministic chaos.[3] The butterfly effect can also be demonstrated by very simple systems. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is FOLKLORE? FOLKLORE Definition & Meaning
What is FOLKLORE, What does FOLKLORE mean, FOLKLORE meaning, FOLKLORE definition, FOLKLORE explanation Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales, proverbs and jokes. They include material culture, ranging from traditional building styles to handmade toys common to the group. Folklore also includes customary lore, the forms and rituals of celebrations such as Christmas and weddings, folk dances and initiation rites. Each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact. Just as essential as the form, folklore also encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next. For folklore is not taught in a formal school curriculum or studied in the fine arts. Instead these traditions are passed along informally from one individual to another either through verbal instruction or demonstration. The academic study of folklore is called Folklore studies. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is ARENA FOOTBALL, What does ARENA FOOTBALL mean, ARENA FOOTBALL meaning, ARENA FOOTBALL definition, ARENA FOOTBALL explanation Arena football is a variety of indoor gridiron football played by the Arena Football League (AFL) and China Arena Football League (CAFL). The game is played indoors on a smaller field than American or Canadian outdoor football, resulting in a faster and higher-scoring game. The sport was invented in 1981, and patented in 1987, by Jim Foster, a former executive of the National Football League and the United States Football League. It was a proprietary game (the rights to which were owned by Gridiron Enterprises) until 2007, when the patent expired. Though not the only variant of indoor American football, it is the most widely known, and the one on which most other forms of modern indoor football are at least partially based. Three leagues have played under arena football rules: the AFL, which played 22 seasons from 1987 to 2008 and resumed play under new ownership in 2010; arenafootball2, the AFL's erstwhile developmental league, which played 10 seasons from 2000 through 2009, and the CAFL, which began play in 2016 but is not directly affiliated with the AFL. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is CONCEPTUALIZATION, What does CONCEPTUALIZATION mean, CONCEPTUALIZATION meaning, CONCEPTUALIZATION definition, CONCEPTUALIZATION explanation In information science a conceptualization is an abstract simplified view of some selected part of the world, containing the objects, concepts, and other entities that are presumed of interest for some particular purpose and the relationships between them.[2][3] An explicit specification of a conceptualization is an ontology, and it may occur that a conceptualization can be realized by several distinct ontologies.[2] An ontological commitment in describing ontological comparisons is taken to refer to that subset of elements of an ontology shared with all the others.[4][5] "An ontology is language-dependent", its objects and interrelations described within the language it uses, while a conceptualization is always the same, more general, its concepts existing "independently of the language used to describe it".[6] The relation between these terms is shown in the figure to the right. Not all workers in knowledge engineering use the term ‘conceptualization’, but instead refer to the conceptualization itself, or to the ontological commitment of all its realizations, as an overarching ontology.[7] Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is SPIRAL GALAXY? SPIRAL GALAXY Definition & Meaning
What is SPIRAL GALAXY, What does SPIRAL GALAXY mean, SPIRAL GALAXY meaning, SPIRAL GALAXY definition, SPIRAL GALAXY explanation Spiral galaxies form a class of galaxy originally described by Edwin Hubble in his 1936 work The Realm of the Nebulae[1] and, as such, form part of the Hubble sequence. Most spiral galaxies consist of a flat, rotating disk containing stars, gas and dust, and a central concentration of stars known as the bulge. These are often surrounded by a much fainter halo of stars, many of which reside in globular clusters. Spiral galaxies are named by their spiral structures that extend from the center into the galactic disc. The spiral arms are sites of ongoing star formation and are brighter than the surrounding disc because of the young, hot OB stars that inhabit them. Roughly two-thirds of all spirals are observed to have an additional component in the form of a bar-like structure,[2] extending from the central bulge, at the ends of which the spiral arms begin. The proportion of barred spirals relative to their barless cousins has likely changed over the history of the Universe, with only about 10% containing bars about 8 billion years ago, to roughly a quarter 2.5 billion years ago, until present, where over two-thirds of the galaxies in the visible universe (Hubble volume) have bars.[3] Our own Milky Way is a barred spiral, although the bar itself is difficult to observe from the Earth's current position within the galactic disc.[4] The most convincing evidence for the stars forming a bar in the galactic center comes from several recent surveys, including the Spitzer Space Telescope.[5] Together with irregular galaxies, spiral galaxies make up approximately 60% of galaxies in today's universe.[6] They are mostly found in low-density regions and are rare in the . Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is DIVINITY? DIVINITY Definition & Meaning
What is DIVINITY, What does DIVINITY mean, DIVINITY meaning, DIVINITY definition, DIVINITY explanation In religion, divinity or godhead is the state of things that are believed to come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god, supreme being, creator deity, or spirits, and are therefore regarded as sacred and holy.[1][2][3] Such things are regarded as divine due to their transcendental origins or because their attributes or qualities are superior or supreme relative to things of the Earth.[1] Divine things are regarded as eternal and based in truth,[1] while material things are regarded as ephemeral and based in illusion. Such things that may qualify as divine are apparitions, visions, prophecies, miracles, and in some views also the soul, or more general things like resurrection, immortality, grace, and salvation. Otherwise what is or is not divine may be loosely defined, as it is used by different belief systems. The root of the word "divine" is literally "godly" (from the Latin deus, cf. Dyaus, closely related to Greek zeus, div in Persian and deva in Sanskrit), but the use varies significantly depending on which deity is being discussed. This article outlines the major distinctions in the conventional use of the terms. For specific related academic terms, see Divinity (academic discipline), or Divine (Anglican). Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is NATIONAL SECURITY, What does NATIONAL SECURITY mean, NATIONAL SECURITY meaning, NATIONAL SECURITY definition, NATIONAL SECURITY explanation. National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government. Originally conceived as protection against military attack, national security is now widely understood to include non-military dimensions, including economic security, energy security, environmental security, food security, cyber security etc. Similarly, national security risks include, in addition to the actions of other nation states, action by violent non-state actors, narcotic cartels, and multinational corporations, and also the effects of natural disasters. Governments rely on a range of measures, including political, economic, and military power, as well as diplomacy to enforce national security. They may also act to build the conditions of security regionally and internationally by reducing transnational causes of insecurity, such as climate change, economic inequality, political exclusion, and nuclear proliferation. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is METAPHYSICS? METAPHYSICS Definition & Meaning
What is METAPHYSICS? What does METAPHYSICS mean? METAPHYSICS meaning - METAPHYSICS definition - METAPHYSICS explanation. Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the essence of a thing. This includes questions of being, becoming, existence, and reality.[1] The word "metaphysics" comes from the Greek words that literally mean "beyond nature". "Nature" in this sense refers to the nature of a thing, such as its cause and purpose. Metaphysics then studies questions of a thing beyond or above questions of its nature, in particular its essence or its qualities of being. Metaphysics seeks to answer, in a "suitably abstract and fully general manner", the questions:[2] What is there? And what is it like? Topics of metaphysical investigation include existence, objects and their properties, space and time, cause and effect, and possibility Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is EARTHENWARE? EARTHENWARE Definition & Meaning
What is EARTHENWARE, What does EARTHENWARE mean, EARTHENWARE meaning, EARTHENWARE definition, EARTHENWARE explanation Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery[2] that has normally been fired below 1200°C.[3] Porcelain, bone china and stoneware, all fired at high enough temperatures to vitrify, are the main other important types of pottery. Earthenware comprises most building bricks, nearly all European pottery up to the seventeenth century, most of the wares of Egypt, Persia and the near East; Greek, Roman and Mediterranean, and some of the Chinese; and the fine earthenware which forms the greater part of our tableware today.[4] Pit fired earthenware dates back to as early as 29,000–25,000 BC,[5][6] and for millennia, only earthenware pottery was made, with stoneware gradually developing some 5,000 years ago, but then apparently disappearing for a few thousand years. Outside East Asia, porcelain was manufactured only from the 18th century AD, and then initially as an expensive luxury. After it is fired, earthenware is opaque and non-vitreous,[7] soft and capable of being scratched with a knife.[4] The Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities describes it as being made of selected clays sometimes mixed with feldspars and varying amounts of other minerals, and white or light-colored (i.e., slightly greyish, cream, or ivory).[7] Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is INTERN ARCHITECT, What does INTERN ARCHITECT mean, INTERN ARCHITECT meaning, INTERN ARCHITECT definition, INTERN ARCHITECT explanation An intern architect or architectural intern is a person who is working professionally in the field of architecture in preparation for registration or licensure as an architect. An intern need not have attained a professional degree in architecture to begin accruing experience hours, but said degree is a prerequisite for licensure. In the United States, Canada, and other countries, an intern architect is enrolled in a regulated program, such as the Intern Development Program (IDP) in the United States or the Intern Architect Program (IAP) in Canada, while working under the supervision of a licensed architect and preparing for professional registration exams. The use of the title "architect" (or any derivation thereof) is legally protected in the United States, Canada, and other countries. Most U.S. states and all Canadian provinces, however, allow the use of the terms "intern architect" or "architectural intern" for a person enrolled in an architectural internship program. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is TRAIT THEORY? TRAIT THEORY Definition & Meaning
What is TRAIT THEORY, What does TRAIT THEORY mean, TRAIT THEORY meaning, TRAIT THEORY definition, TRAIT THEORY explanation In psychology, trait theory (also called dispositional theory) is an approach to the study of human personality. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion.[1] According to this perspective, traits are aspects of personality that are relatively stable over time, differ across individuals (e.g. some people are outgoing whereas others are not), are relatively consistent over situations, and influence behavior. Traits are in contrast to states, which are more transitory dispositions. In some theories and systems, traits are something a person either has or does not have, but in many others traits are dimensions such as extraversion vs. introversion, with each person rating somewhere along this spectrum. There are two approaches to define traits: as internal causal properties or as purely descriptive summaries. The internal causal definition states that traits influence our behaviours, leading us to do things in line with that trait. On the other hand, traits as descriptive summaries are descriptions of our actions that don't try to infer causality.[2] Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is THERMOSTAT? THERMOSTAT Definition & Meaning
What is THERMOSTAT? What does THERMOSTAT mean? THERMOSTAT meaning - THERMOSTAT definition - THERMOSTAT explanation. A thermostat is a component which senses the temperature of a physical system and performs actions so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint. Thermostats are used in any device or system that heats or cools to a setpoint temperature, examples include building heating, central heating, air conditioners, HVAC systems, water heaters, as well as kitchen equipment including ovens and refrigerators and medical and scientific incubators. In scientific literature, these devices are often broadly classified as thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs). Thermostatically controlled loads comprise roughly 50% of the overall electricity demand in the United States.[1] A thermostat operates as a "closed loop" control device, as it seeks to reduce the error between the desired and measured temperatures. Sometimes a thermostat combines both the sensing and control action elements of a controlled system, such as in an automotive thermostat. The word thermostat is derived from the Greek words θερμός thermos, "hot" and στατός statos, "standing, stationary". Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is HUMAN GEOGRAPHY? What does HUMAN GEOGRAPHY mean? HUMAN GEOGRAPHY meaning - HUMAN GEOGRAPHY definition - HUMAN GEOGRAPHY explanation. Human geography is the branch of geography that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place.[1] Human geography attends to human patterns of social interaction, as well as spatial level interdependencies, and how they influence or affect the earth's environment.[2][3] As an intellectual discipline, geography is divided into the sub-fields of physical geography and human geography, the latter concentrating upon the study of human activities, by the application of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is AIRCRAFT? AIRCRAFT Definition & Meaning
What is AIRCRAFT, What does AIRCRAFT mean, AIRCRAFT meaning, AIRCRAFT definition, AIRCRAFT explanation An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil,[1] or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. Common examples of aircraft include airplanes, helicopters, airships (including blimps), gliders, and hot air balloons.[2] The human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation. The science of aviation, including designing and building aircraft, is called aeronautics. Crewed aircraft are flown by an onboard pilot, but unmanned aerial vehicles may be remotely controlled or self-controlled by onboard computers. Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as lift type, aircraft propulsion, usage and others. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is SELF DIRECTEDNESS, What does SELF DIRECTEDNESS mean, SELF DIRECTEDNESS meaning,SELF DIRECTEDNESS definition, SELF DIRECTEDNESS explanation Self-directedness is a personality trait of self-determination, that is, the ability to regulate and adapt behavior to the demands of a situation in order to achieve personally chosen goals and values.[1] It is one of the "character" dimensions in Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Cloninger has described it as "willpower", defined as "a metaphorical abstract concept to describe the extent to which a person identifies the imaginal self as an integrated, purposeful whole individual, rather than a disorganized set of reactive impulses."[1] Cloninger's research has found that low self-directedness is a major common feature of personality disorders generally. Self-directedness is conceptually related to locus of control.[2] That is, low self-directedness is associated with external locus of control, whereas high self-directedness is associated with internal locus of control.[1] In the five factor model of personality, self-directedness has a strong inverse association with neuroticism and a strong positive association with conscientiousness.[2] Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is HISTORIOGRAPHY, What does HISTORIOGRAPHY mean, HISTORIOGRAPHY meaning, HISTORIOGRAPHY definition, HISTORIOGRAPHY explanation Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches. Scholars discuss historiography by topic – such as the "historiography of the United Kingdom", the "historiography of Canada", "historiography of the British Empire", the "historiography of early Islam", the "historiography of China" – and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the ascent of academic history, there developed a body of historiographic literature. The extent to which historians are influenced by their own groups and loyalties – such as to their nation state – is a debated question.[1] The research interests of historians change over time, and there has been a shift away from traditional diplomatic, economic, and political history toward newer approaches, especially social and cultural studies. From 1975 to 1995, the proportion of professors of history in American universities identifying with social history increased from 31 to 41 percent, while the proportion of political historians decreased from 40 to 30 percent.[2] In 2007, of 5,723 faculty in the departments of history at British universities, 1,644 (29%) identified themselves with social history and 1,425 (25%) identified themselves with political history.[3] Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is FOOD SCIENCE? FOOD SCIENCE Definition & Meaning
What is FOOD SCIENCE, What does FOOD SCIENCE mean, FOOD SCIENCE meaning, FOOD SCIENCE definition, FOOD SCIENCE explanation Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of food. The Institute of Food Technologists defines food science as "the discipline in which the engineering, biological, and physical sciences are used to study the nature of foods, the causes of deterioration, the principles underlying food processing, and the improvement of foods for the consuming public".[1] The textbook Food Science defines food science in simpler terms as "the application of basic sciences and engineering to study the physical, chemical, and biochemical nature of foods and the principles of food processing".[2] Activities of food scientists include the development of new food products, design of processes to produce these foods, choice of packaging materials, shelf-life studies, sensory evaluation of products using survey panels or potential consumers, as well as microbiological and chemical testing.[3] Food scientists may study more fundamental phenomena that are directly linked to the production of food products and its properties. Food science brings together multiple scientific disciplines. It incorporates concepts from fields such as microbiology, chemical engineering, and biochemistry. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is TEAMWORK? TEAMWORK Definition & Meaning
What is TEAMWORK, What does TEAMWORK mean, TEAMWORK meaning, TEAMWORK definition, TEAMWORK explanation Teamwork is the collaborative effort of a team to achieve a common goal or to complete a task in the most effective and efficient way.[1][2] This concept is seen within the greater framework of a team, which is a group of interdependent individuals who work together towards a common goal.[3] Basic requirements for effective teamwork are an adequate team size (about 6-8 members), available resources for the team to make use of (i.e. meeting space and time, guidance from a supervisor, support from the organization, etc.), and clearly defined roles within the team in order for everyone to have a clear purpose.[4][5][6][7] Teamwork is present in any context where a group of people are working together to achieve a common goal.[1] These contexts include an industrial organization (formal work teams), athletics (sports teams), a school (classmates working on a project), and the healthcare system (operating room teams). In each of these settings, the level of teamwork and interdependence can vary from low (e.g. golf, track and field), to intermediate (e.g. baseball, football), to high (e.g. basketball, soccer), depending on the amount of communication, interaction, and collaboration present between team members. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is CHEMISORPTION, What does CHEMISORPTION mean, CHEMISORPTION meaning, CHEMISORPTION definition, CHEMISORPTION explanation Chemisorption is a kind of adsorption which involves a chemical reaction between the surface and the adsorbate. New chemical bonds are generated at the adsorbant surface. Examples include macroscopic phenomena that can be very obvious, like corrosion, and subtler effects associated with heterogeneous catalysis. The strong interaction between the adsorbate and the substrate surface creates new types of electronic bonds.[1] In contrast with chemisorption is physisorption, which leaves the chemical species of the adsorbate and surface intact. It is conventionally accepted that the energetic threshold separating the binding energy of "physisorption" from that of "chemisorption" is about 0.5 eV per adsorbed species. Due to specificity, the nature of chemisorption can greatly differ, depending on the chemical identity and the surface structure. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is FORENSIC ENGINEERING, What does FORENSIC ENGINEERING mean, FORENSIC ENGINEERING meaning, FORENSIC ENGINEERING definition, FORENSIC ENGINEERING explanation Forensic engineering has been defined as "the investigation of failures - ranging from serviceability to catastrophic - which may lead to legal activity, including both civil and criminal".[1] It therefore includes the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury, damage to property or economic loss. The consequences of failure may give rise to action under either criminal or civil law including but not limited to health and safety legislation, the laws of contract and/or product liability and the laws of tort. The field also deals with retracing processes and procedures leading to accidents in operation of vehicles or machinery. Generally, the purpose of a forensic engineering investigation is to locate cause or causes of failure with a view to improve performance or life of a component, or to assist a court in determining the facts of an accident. It can also involve investigation of intellectual property claims, especially patents. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is MARINE RADAR? MARINE RADAR Definition & Meaning
What is MARINE RADAR, What does MARINE RADAR mean, MARINE RADAR meaning, MARINE RADAR definition, MARINE RADAR explanation Marine radars are X band or S band radars on ships, used to detect other ships and land obstacles, to provide bearing and distance for collision avoidance and navigation at sea. They are electronic navigation instruments that use a rotating antenna to sweep a narrow beam of microwaves around the water surface surrounding the ship to the horizon, detecting targets by microwaves reflected from them, displaying a picture of the ship's surroundings on a display screen. Radar is a vital component for safety at sea and near the shore. Captains need to be able to maneuver their ships within feet in the worst of conditions and to be able to navigate "blind", when there is no visibility at night or due to bad weather. Radars are rarely used alone in a marine setting. In commercial ships, they are integrated into a full system of marine instruments including chartplotters, sonar, two-way marine radio, satellite navigation (GNSS) receivers such as the US Global Positioning System (GPS), and emergency locators (SART). The integration of these devices is very important as it becomes quite distracting to look at several different screens. Therefore, displays can often overlay charting, radar, sonar into a single system. This gives the captain unprecedented instrumentation to maneuver the ship. With digital backbones, these devices have advanced greatly in the last years. For example, the newer ones have 3D displays that allow navigators to see above, below and all around the ship, including overlays of satellite imaging. In port or in harbour, shore-based vessel traffic service radar systems are used to monitor and regulate ship movements in busy waters. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is MOONMILK? MOONMILK Definition & Meaning
What is MOONMILK? What does MOONMILK mean? MOONMILK meaning - MOONMILK definition - MOONMILK explanation. Moonmilk (sometimes called mondmilch, also known as montmilch or as cave milk) is a white, creamy substance found inside limestone caves. It is a precipitate from limestone comprising aggregates of fine crystals of varying composition usually made of carbonates such as calcite, aragonite, hydromagnesite, and/or monohydrocalcite. There are several hypotheses concerning the origin of moonmilk. One of these explains moonmilk to be the result of bacterial action rather than from chemical reactions. According to this particular hypothesis, moonmilk is thought to have been created by the bacterium Macromonas bipunctata. However, no microbiological studies have been carried out so far. Moonmilk was originally explained as created by "moon rays".[1] It is possible that moonmilk is formed by water that dissolves and softens the karst of caves consisting of carbonates, and carries dissolved nutrients that can be used by microbes, such as Actinomycetes. As the microbial colonies grow, they trap and accumulate chemically-precipitated crystals in the organic matter-rich matrix formed that way. Perhaps these heterotrophic microbes, which produce CO2 as a waste product of respiration and possibly organic acids, help to dissolve the carbonate. Being soft, moonmilk was frequently the medium for finger fluting, a form of prehistoric art. The world's largest formation of brushite moonmilk is found in the Big Room of Kartchner Caverns State Park in southern Arizona. [2] In the middle of 16th century moonmilk was used as a medicine according to Gessner, and continued to be used as such until the 19th century. It is said to have cured acidosis and probably cardialgia by neutralizing an overdose of acid. It had no adverse health effects.[3] Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is DETERMINISM? DETERMINISM Definition & Meaning
What is DETERMINISM? What does DETERMINISM mean? DETERMINISM meaning - DETERMINISM definition - DETERMINISM explanation. Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes. Determinism is at times understood to preclude free will because it entails that humans cannot act otherwise than they do. The theory holds that the universe is utterly rational because complete knowledge of any given situation assures that unerring knowledge of its future is also possible.[1] Some philosophers suggest variants around this basic definition.[2] Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse and sometimes overlapping motives and considerations. The opposite of determinism is some kind of indeterminism (otherwise called nondeterminism). Determinism is often contrasted with free will.[3] Determinism often is taken to mean causal determinism, which in physics is known as cause-and-effect. It is the concept that events within a given paradigm are bound by causality in such a way that any state (of an object or event) is completely determined by prior states. This meaning can be distinguished from other varieties of determinism mentioned below. Other debates often concern the scope of determined systems, with some maintaining that the entire universe is a single determinate system and others identifying other more limited determinate systems (or multiverse). Numerous historical debates involve many philosophical positions and varieties of determinism. They include debates concerning determinism and free will, technically denoted as compatibilistic (allowing the two to coexist) and incompatibilistic (denying their coexistence is a possibility). Determinism should not be confused with self-determination of human actions by reasons, motives, and desires. Determinism rarely requires that perfect prediction be practically possible. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is HISTORY? HISTORY Definition & Meaning
What is HISTORY, What does HISTORY mean, HISTORY meaning, HISTORY definition, HISTORY explanation History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation")[2] is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.[3][4] Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians. History can also refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them.[5][6] Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.[5][7][8][9] Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the tales surrounding King Arthur), are usually classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history.[10][11] Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history. Their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today. The modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is TOPOGRAPHY? TOPOGRAPHY Definition & Meaning
What is TOPOGRAPHY, What does TOPOGRAPHY mean, TOPOGRAPHY meaning, TOPOGRAPHY definition, TOPOGRAPHY explanation Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids. The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description (especially their depiction in maps). This field of geoscience and planetary science is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but also natural and artificial features, and even local history and culture. This meaning is less common in the United States, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made "topography" synonymous with relief. Topography in a narrow sense involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, and the identification of specific landforms. This is also known as geomorphometry. In modern usage, this involves generation of elevation data in digital form (DEM). It is often considered to include the graphic representation of the landform on a map by a variety of techniques, including contour lines, hypsometric tints, and relief shading. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR? What does INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR mean? INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR meaning - INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR definition - INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR explanation. An institutional investor is an entity which pools money to purchase securities, real property, and other investment assets or originate loans. Institutional investors include banks, insurance companies, pensions, hedge funds, REITs, investment advisors, endowments, and mutual funds. Operating companies which invest excess capital in these types of assets may also be included in the term. Activist institutional investors may also influence corporate governance by exercising voting rights in their investments. Although institutional investors appear to be more sophisticated than retail investors, it remains unclear if professional active investment managers can reliably enhance risk adjusted returns by an amount that exceeds fees and expenses of investment management.[1] Lending credence to doubts about active investors' ability to 'beat the market', passive index funds have gained traction with the rise of passive investors: the three biggest US asset managers together owned an average of 18% in the S&P 500 Index and together constituted the largest shareholder in 88% of the S&P 500 by 2015.[2] The potential of institutional investors in infrastructure markets is increasingly noted after financial crises in the early twenty-first century.[3] Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, What does MECHANICAL ENGINEERING mean, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING meaning, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING definition, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING explanation Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering disciplines. The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and product life cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production, and operation of machinery.[1][2] Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century; however, its development can be traced back several thousand years around the world. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science. The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements; today mechanical engineers are pursuing developments in such areas as composites, mechatronics, and nanotechnology. It also overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, and other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may also work in the field of biomedical engineering, specifically with biomechanics, transport phenomena, biomechatronics, bionanotechnology, and modeling of biological systems. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS? What does RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS mean? RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS meaning - RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS definition - RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS explanation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.[1] It typically results in warm, swollen, and painful joints.[1] Pain and stiffness often worsen following rest.[1] Most commonly, the wrist and hands are involved, with the same joints typically involved on both sides of the body.[1] The disease may also affect other parts of the body.[1] This may result in a low red blood cell count, inflammation around the lungs, and inflammation around the heart.[1] Fever and low energy may also be present.[1] Often, symptoms come on gradually over weeks to months.[2] While the cause of rheumatoid arthritis is not clear, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[1] The underlying mechanism involves the body's immune system attacking the joints.[1] This results in inflammation and thickening of the joint capsule.[1] It also affects the underlying bone and cartilage.[1] The diagnosis is made mostly on the basis of a person's signs and symptoms.[2] X-rays and laboratory testing may support a diagnosis or exclude other diseases with similar symptoms.[1] Other diseases that may present similarly include systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriatic arthritis, and fibromyalgia among others.[2] The goals of treatment are to reduce pain, decrease inflammation, and improve a person's overall functioning.[5] This may be helped by balancing rest and exercise, the use of splints and braces, or the use of assistive devices.[1] Pain medications, steroids, and NSAIDs are frequently used to help with symptoms.[1] Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate, may be used to try to slow the progression of disease.[1] Biological DMARDs may be used when disease does not respond to other treatments.[6] However, they may have a greater rate of adverse effects.[7] Surgery to repair, replace, or fuse joints may help in certain situations.[1] Most alternative medicine treatments are not supported by evidence.[8][9] RA affects about 24.5 million people as of 2015.[10] This is between 0.5 and 1% of adults in the developed world with 5 and 50 per 100,000 people newly developing the condition each year.[3] Onset is most frequent during middle age and women are affected 2.5 times as frequently as men.[1] In 2013, it resulted in 38,000 deaths up from 28,000 deaths in 1990.[11] The first recognized description of RA was made in 1800 by Dr. Augustin Jacob Landré-Beauvais (1772–1840) of Paris.[12] The term rheumatoid arthritis is based on the Greek for watery and inflamed joints.[13]Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is SCHOOL OF THOUGHT, What does SCHOOL OF THOUGHT mean, SCHOOL OF THOUGHT meaning, SCHOOL OF THOUGHT definition, SCHOOL OF THOUGHT explanation A school of thought (or intellectual tradition) is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, discipline, belief, social movement, economics, cultural movement, or art movement.[citation needed] Schools are often characterized by their currency, and thus classified into "new" and "old" schools. There is a convention, in political and philosophical fields of thought, to have "modern" and "classical" schools of thought. An example is the modern and classical liberals. This dichotomy is often a component of paradigm shift. However, it is rarely the case that there are only two schools in any given field. Schools are often named after their founders such as the "Rinzai school" of Zen, named after Linji Yixuan; and the Asharite school of early Muslim philosophy, named after Abu l'Hasan al-Ashari. They are often also named after their places of origin, such as the Ionian school of philosophy, which originated in Ionia; the Chicago school of architecture, which originated in Chicago, Illinois; the Prague school of linguistics, named after a linguistic circle founded in Prague; and the Tartu–Moscow Semiotic School, whose representatives lived in Tartu and Moscow. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is ELEMENTARY PARTICLE, What does ELEMENTARY PARTICLE mean, ELEMENTARY PARTICLE meaning, ELEMENTARY PARTICLE definition, ELEMENTARY PARTICLE explanation In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a subatomic particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.[1] Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons), which generally are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and the Higgs boson), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions.[1] A particle containing two or more elementary particles is a composite particle. Everyday matter is composed of atoms, once presumed to be matter's elementary particles—atom meaning "unable to cut" in Greek—although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1910, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of energy.[1][2] Soon, subatomic constituents of the atom were identified. As the 1930s opened, the electron and the proton had been observed[citation needed], along with the photon, the particle of electromagnetic radiation.[1] At that time, the recent advent of quantum mechanics was radically altering the conception of particles, as a single particle could seemingly span a field as would a wave, a paradox still eluding satisfactory explanation.[3][4] Via quantum theory, protons and neutrons were found to contain quarks—up quarks and down quarks—now considered elementary particles.[1] And within a molecule, the electron's three degrees of freedom (charge, spin, orbital) can separate via the wavefunction into three quasiparticles (holon, spinon, orbiton).[5] Yet a free electron—which is not orbiting an atomic nucleus and lacks orbital motion—appears unsplittable and remains regarded as an elementary particle.[5] Around 1980, an elementary particle's status as indeed elementary—an ultimate constituent of substance—was mostly discarded for a more practical outlook,[1] embodied in particle physics' Standard Model, what's known as science's most experimentally successful theory.[4][6] Many elaborations upon and theories beyond the Standard Model, including the popular supersymmetry, double the number of elementary particles by hypothesizing that each known particle associates with a "shadow" partner far more massive,[7][8] although all such superpartners remain undiscovered.[6][9] Meanwhile, an elementary boson mediating gravitation—the graviton—remains hypothetical.[1] Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is PERSONAL COMPUTER? What does PERSONAL COMPUTER mean? PERSONAL COMPUTER meaning - PERSONAL COMPUTER definition - PERSONAL COMPUTER explanation. A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.[1] PCs are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or technician. Computer time-sharing models that were typically used with larger, more expensive minicomputer and mainframe systems, to enable them be used by many people at the same time, are not used with PCs. Early computer owners in the 1960s, invariably institutional or corporate, had to write their own programs to do any useful work with the machines. In the 2010s, personal computer users have access to a wide range of commercial software, free-of-charge software ("freeware") and free and open-source software, which are provided in ready-to-run form. Software for personal computers is typically developed and distributed independently from the hardware or OS manufacturers.[2] Many personal computer users no longer need to write their own programs to make any use of a personal computer, although end-user programming is still feasible. This contrasts with mobile systems, where software is often only available through a manufacturer-supported channel,[3] and end-user program development may be discouraged by lack of support by the manufacturer.[4] Since the early 1990s, Microsoft operating systems and Intel hardware have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and then with Windows. Alternatives to Microsoft's Windows operating systems occupy a minority share of the industry. These include Apple's macOS and free and open-source Unix-like operating systems such as Linux. Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) provides the main alternative to Intel's processors. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is Medicine? Medicine Definition & Meaning
What is Medicine? What does Medicine mean? Medicine meaning - Medicine definition - Medicine explanation. Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Medicine encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation, amongst others.[1] Medicine has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture. For example, a medicine man would apply herbs and say prayers for healing, or an ancient philosopher and physician would apply bloodletting according to the theories of humorism. In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science, most medicine has become a combination of art and science (both basic and applied, under the umbrella of medical science). While stitching technique for sutures is an art learned through practice, the knowledge of what happens at the cellular and molecular level in the tissues being stitched arises through science. Prescientific forms of medicine are now known as traditional medicine and folk medicine. They remain commonly used with or instead of scientific medicine and are thus called alternative medicine. For example, evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture is "variable and inconsistent" for any condition,[2] but is generally safe when done by an appropriately trained practitioner.[3] In contrast, treatments outside the bounds of safety and efficacy are termed quackery. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is LEARNED SOCIETY, What does LEARNED SOCIETY mean, LEARNED SOCIETY meaning, LEARNED SOCIETY definition, LEARNED SOCIETY explanation A learned society (/ˈlɜːrnɪd/; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organisation that exists to promote an academic discipline, profession, or a group of related disciplines such as the arts.[1] Membership may be open to all, may require possession of some qualification, or may be an honour conferred by election.[2] Most learned societies are non-profit organisations, and many are professional associations. Their activities typically include holding regular conferences for the presentation and discussion of new research results and publishing or sponsoring academic journals in their discipline. Some also act as professional bodies, regulating the activities of their members in the public interest or the collective interest of the membership. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is RELIGION AND PEACEBUILDING? What does RELIGION AND PEACEBUILDING mean? RELIGION AND PEACEBUILDING meaning - RELIGION AND PEACEBUILDING definition - RELIGION AND PEACEBUILDING explanation. Religion and peacebuilding refers to the study of religion's role in the development of peace. Scholars generally accept that religion has been, at different points in history, both advantageous and ruinous to the promotion of peace[1] However, there have been many approaches to explaining this variability. Nathan C. Funk and Christina J. Woolner categorize these approaches into three models. The first is “peace through religion alone”. This proposes to attain world peace through devotion to a given religion. Opponents claim that advocates generally want to attain peace through their particular religion only and have little tolerance of other ideologies. The second model, a response to the first, is “peace without religion”. Critics claim that it is overly simplistic and fails to address other causes of conflict as well as the peace potential of religion. It is also said that this model excludes the many contributions of religious people in the development of peace. Another critique claims that both approaches require bringing everyone into their own ideology. The third and final approach is known as “peace with religion”. This approach focuses on the importance of coexistence and interfaith dialogue.[2] Gerrie ter Haar suggests that religion is neither inherently good nor bad for peace, and that its influence is undeniable.[3] Peace with religion, then, emphasises promoting the common principles present in every major religion. A major component of religion and peacebuilding is faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Douglas Johnston points out that faith-based NGOs offer two distinct advantages. The first is that since faith-based NGOs are very often locally based, they have immediate influence within that community. He argues that “it is important to promote indigenous ownership of conflict prevention and peacebuilding initiatives as early in the process as possible.” The second advantage Johnston presents is that faith-based NGOs carry moral authority that contributes to the receptivity of negotiations and policies for peace. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is PERSONAL IDENTITY? What does PERSONAL IDENTITY mean? PERSONAL IDENTITY meaning - PERSONAL IDENTITY definition - PERSONAL IDENTITY explanation. In philosophy, the matter of personal identity[1] deals with such questions as, "What makes it true that a person at one time is the same thing as a person at another time?" or "What kinds of things are we persons?" Generally, personal identity is the unique numerical identity of a person in the course of time.[2][3] That is, the necessary and sufficient conditions under which a person at one time and a person at another time can be said to be the same person, persisting through time.[a] In contemporary metaphysics, the matter of personal identity is referred to as the diachronic problem of personal identity.[b][4] The synchronic problem concerns the question of what features and traits characterize a person at a given time. In continental philosophy and in analytic philosophy, enquiry to the nature of Identity is common. Continental philosophy deals with conceptually maintaining identity when confronted by different philosophic propositions, postulates, and presuppositions about the world and its nature.[5][6] Source: Wikipedia.org
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what is wireless telegraphy, what does wireless telegraphy mean, wireless telegraphy meaning, wireless telegraphy definition, wireless telegraphy explanation Wireless telegraphy means transmission of telegraph signals by radio waves;[1][2] a more modern term for this is radiotelegraphy. Due to its simplicity, radiotelegraphy was the first means of radio communication; the first practical radio transmitters and receivers invented in 1894-5 by Guglielmo Marconi used radiotelegraphy. It continued to be the only type of radio transmission during the first three decades of radio, called the "wireless telegraphy era" up until World War I, when the development of amplitude modulation (AM) radiotelephony allowed sound (audio) to be transmitted by radio. In radiotelegraphy, information is transmitted by pulses of radio waves of two different lengths called "dots" and "dashes", which spell out text messages, usually in Morse code. In a manual system, the sending operator taps on a switch called a telegraph key which turns the transmitter on and off, producing the pulses of radio waves. At the receiver the pulses are audible in the receiver's speaker as beeps, which are translated back to text by an operator who knows Morse code. Before about 1910 when radio became dominant, the term wireless telegraphy was also used for various other experimental technologies for transmitting telegraph signals without wires, such as electromagnetic induction, and ground conduction telegraph systems.[3][4] Radiotelegraphy was used for long distance person-to-person commercial, diplomatic, and military text communication throughout the first half of the 20th century. It became a strategically important capability during the two world wars, since a nation without long distance radiotelegraph stations could be isolated from the rest of the world by an enemy cutting its submarine telegraph cables. Beginning about 1908, powerful transoceanic radiotelegraphy stations transmitted commercial telegram traffic between countries at rates up to 200 words per minute. Radiotelegraphy was transmitted by several different modulation methods during its history. The primitive spark gap transmitters used until 1920 transmitted damped waves, which had very large bandwidth and tended to interfere with other transmissions. This type of emission was banned by 1930. The vacuum tube (valve) transmitters which came into use after 1920 transmitted code by pulses of unmodulated sinusoidal carrier wave called continuous waves (CW), which is still used today. To make CW transmissions audible, the receiver requires a circuit called a beat frequency oscillator (BFO). A third type of modulation, frequency shift keying (FSK) was used mainly by radioteletypes. Morse code radiotelegraphy was gradually replaced by radioteletype networks (RTTY) in most high volume applications by World War 2. Today it is nearly obsolete, the only remaining users are the radio amateur community and some limited training by the military for emergency use. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is INFRARED? INFRARED Definition & Meaning
What is INFRARED, What does INFRARED mean, INFRARED meaning, INFRARED definition, INFRARED explanation Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions [1][2][3][4]). It is sometimes called infrared light. IR wavelengths extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz), to 1 millimeter (300 GHz)[5] Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared. Like all EMR, IR carries radiant energy, and behaves both like a wave and like its quantum particle, the photon. Infrared was discovered in 1800 by astronomer Sir William Herschel, who discovered a type of invisible radiation in the spectrum lower in energy than red light, by means of its effect on a thermometer.[6] Slightly more than half of the total energy from the Sun was eventually found to arrive on Earth in the form of infrared. The balance between absorbed and emitted infrared radiation has a critical effect on Earth's climate. Infrared radiation is emitted or absorbed by molecules when they change their rotational-vibrational movements. It excites vibrational modes in a molecule through a change in the dipole moment, making it a useful frequency range for study of these energy states for molecules of the proper symmetry. Infrared spectroscopy examines absorption and transmission of photons in the infrared range.[7] Infrared radiation is used in industrial, scientific, military, law enforcement, and medical applications. Night-vision devices using active near-infrared illumination allow people or animals to be observed without the observer being detected. Infrared astronomy uses sensor-equipped telescopes to penetrate dusty regions of space such as molecular clouds, detect objects such as planets, and to view highly red-shifted objects from the early days of the universe.[8] Infrared thermal-imaging cameras are used to detect heat loss in insulated systems, to observe changing blood flow in the skin, and to detect overheating of electrical apparatus. Extensive uses for military and civilian applications include target acquisition, surveillance, night vision, homing, and tracking. Humans at normal body temperature radiate chiefly at wavelengths around 10 μm (micrometers). Non-military uses include thermal efficiency analysis, environmental monitoring, industrial facility inspections, detection of grow-ops, remote temperature sensing, short-range wireless communication, spectroscopy, and weather forecasting. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is MONOPOLY? MONOPOLY Definition & Meaning
What is MONOPOLY, What does MONOPOLY mean, MONOPOLY meaning, MONOPOLY definition, MONOPOLY explanation A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos ["alone" or "single"] and πωλεῖν pōleîn ["to sell"]) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity. This contrasts with a monopsony which relates to a single entity's control of a market to purchase a good or service, and with oligopoly which consists of a few sellers dominating a market.[2] Monopolies are thus characterized by a lack of economic competition to produce the good or service, a lack of viable substitute goods, and the possibility of a high monopoly price well above the seller's marginal cost that leads to a high monopoly profit.[3] The verb monopolise or monopolize refers to the process by which a company gains the ability to raise prices or exclude competitors. In economics, a monopoly is a single seller. In law, a monopoly is a business entity that has significant market power, that is, the power to charge overly high prices.[4] Although monopolies may be big businesses, size is not a characteristic of a monopoly. A small business may still have the power to raise prices in a small industry (or market).[4] A monopoly is distinguished from a monopsony, in which there is only one buyer of a product or service; a monopoly may also have monopsony control of a sector of a market. Likewise, a monopoly should be distinguished from a cartel (a form of oligopoly), in which several providers act together to coordinate services, prices or sale of goods. Monopolies, monopsonies and oligopolies are all situations in which one or a few entities have market power and therefore interact with their customers (monopoly or oligopoly), or suppliers (monopsony) in ways that distort the market.[citation needed] Monopolies can be established by a government, form naturally, or form by integration. In many jurisdictions, competition laws restrict monopolies. Holding a dominant position or a monopoly in a market is often not illegal in itself, however certain categories of behavior can be considered abusive and therefore incur legal sanctions when business is dominant. A government-granted monopoly or legal monopoly, by contrast, is sanctioned by the state, often to provide an incentive to invest in a risky venture or enrich a domestic interest group. Patents, copyrights, and trademarks are sometimes used as examples of government-granted monopolies. The government may also reserve the venture for itself, thus forming a government monopoly.[citation needed] Monopolies may be naturally occurring due to limited competition because the industry is resource intensive and requires substantial costs to operate. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What Is CRYOTHERAPY? CRYOTHERAPY Definition & Meaning
What is CRYOTHERAPY? What does CRYOTHERAPY mean? CRYOTHERAPY meaning - CRYOTHERAPY definition - CRYOTHERAPY explanation. Cryotherapy, sometimes known as cold therapy, is the local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy. Cryotherapy is used to treat a variety of tissue lesions.[1] The most prominent use of the term refers to the surgical treatment, specifically known as cryosurgery or cryoablation. Cryosurgery is the application of extreme cold to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue and is used most commonly to treat skin conditions. Cryotherapy is used in an effort to relieve muscle pain, sprains and swelling after soft tissue damage or surgery. It can be a range of treatments from the very low technology application of ice packs or immersion in ice baths (generally known as cold therapy) to the use of cold chambers. While cryotherapy is widely used, there is little evidence as to its efficacy that has been replicated or shown in large controlled studies. Also its long term side effects have not been studied.[2][3] The term "cryotherapy" comes from the Greek cryo (κρύο) meaning cold, and therapy (θεραπεία) meaning cure. Source: Wikipedia.org
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What is ON TARGET EARNINGS, What does ON TARGET EARNINGS mean, ON TARGET EARNINGS meaning, ON TARGET EARNINGS definition, ON TARGET EARNINGS explanation Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time[1]. This is usually done in order to facilitate the study and analysis of history, understanding current and historical processes, and causality that might have linked those events. This results in descriptive abstractions that provide convenient terms for periods of time with relatively stable characteristics. However, determining the precise beginning and ending to any "period" is often arbitrary, since it has changed over time over the course of history. To the extent that history is continuous and ungeneralizable, all systems of periodization are more or less arbitrary. Yet without named periods, however clumsy or imprecise, past time would be nothing more than scattered events without a framework to help us understand them. Nations, cultures, families, and even individuals, each with their different remembered histories, are constantly engaged in imposing overlapping, often unsystematized, schemes of temporal periodization; periodizing labels are continually challenged and redefined, but once established, a period "brand" is so convenient that many are "very hard" to change or shake off. Source: Wikipedia.org
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