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The California Gold Rush cartoon 1849 (The Wild West)
 
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Not many Americans lived in California, but that soon changed. By 1849 thousands upon thousands of people arrived in search of gold. Support the cartoons on patreon: https://www.patreon.com/simplehistory?ty=c Get your copy of Simple History: The Wild West today! https://www.amazon.com/Simple-History-Wild-Daniel-Turner/dp/153916036X/ Simple history gives you the facts, simple! See the book collection here: Amazon USA http://www.amazon.com/Daniel-Turner/e/B00H5TYLAE/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_1?qid=1457289367&sr=8-1 Amazon UK http://www.amazon.co.uk/Daniel-Turner/e/B00H5TYLAE/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_1?qid=1457289367&sr=8-1 http://www.simplehistory.co.uk/ https://www.facebook.com/Simple-History-549437675141192/ https://twitter.com/simple_guides Credit: Narrator: Chris Kane http://ckvox.com/ Animation: Daniel Turner CJ Boucher artwork: Daniel Turner Music: One Fine Day
Views: 626914 Simple History
Westward Expansion: Crash Course US History #24
 
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In which John Green teaches you about the Wild, Wild, West, which as it turns out, wasn't as wild as it seemed in the movies. When we think of the western expansion of the United States in the 19th century, we're conditioned to imagine the loner. The self-reliant, unattached cowpoke roaming the prairie in search of wandering calves, or the half-addled prospector who has broken from reality thanks to the solitude of his single-minded quest for gold dust. While there may be a grain of truth to these classic Hollywood stereotypes, it isn't a very big grain of truth. Many of the pioneers who settled the west were family groups. Many were immigrants. Many were major corporations. The big losers in the westward migration were Native Americans, who were killed or moved onto reservations. Not cool, American pioneers. Support CrashCourse on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Hey teachers and students - Check out CommonLit's free collection of reading passages and curriculum resources to learn more about the events of this episode. America’s Westward expansion was fueled by both Manifest Destiny and a desire to grow the nation and its resources — though at a cost: https://www.commonlit.org/texts/manifest-destiny As Americans continued to stream West on the name of Manifest Destiny, American Indians saw their lives changed forever as they moved from practising resistance to lives on reservations: https://www.commonlit.org/texts/from-resistance-to-reservations
Views: 2196421 CrashCourse
Gold Mining in South Dakota | Largest Gold Mine in North America | Documentary | 1940
 
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● Please SUPPORT my work on Patreon: https://bit.ly/2LT6opZ ● Visit my 2ND CHANNEL: https://bit.ly/2ILbyX8 ►Facebook: https://bit.ly/2INA7yt ►Twitter: https://bit.ly/2Lz57nY ►Google+: https://bit.ly/2IPz7dl ✚ Watch my "Old America" PLAYLIST: https://bit.ly/2rOHzmy Documentary film on underground hard rock gold mining and the life of gold miners in South Dakota, as seen through the eyes of the Homestake Mining Company. The Homestake Mine was a deep underground gold mine located in Lead, South Dakota. Until it closed in 2002 it was the largest and deepest gold mine in North America. The mine produced more than 40 million troy ounces (approximately 1.25 million kilograms) of gold during its lifetime. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * History of the Homestake Mine: The Homestake deposit was discovered by Fred and Moses Manuel, Alex Engh and Hank Harney in April 1876, during the Black Hills Gold Rush. A trio of mining entrepreneurs, George Hearst, Lloyd Tevis, and James Ben Ali Haggin, bought it from them for $70,000 the following year. George Hearst arrived at the mine in October 1877, and took active control of the property. Hearst had to haul in all the mining equipment by wagons from the nearest railhead in Sidney, Nebraska. Arthur De Wint Foote worked as an engineer. Despite the remote location, an 80-stamp mill began crushing Homestake ore in July 1878. The partners sold shares in the Homestake Mining Company, and listed it on the New York Stock Exchange in 1879. The Homestake would become one of the longest-listed stocks in the history of the NYSE (Con Edison's original name was New York Gas Light and was listed in 1824). Hearst consolidated and enlarged the Homestake property by fair and foul means. He bought out some adjacent claims, and secured others in the courts. By the time Hearst left the Black Hills in March 1879, he had added the claims of Giant, Golden Star, Netty, May Booth, Golden Star No. 2, Crown Point, Sunrise, and General Ellison to the original two claims of the Manuel Brothers, Golden Terra and Old Abe, totaling 30 acres. The ten-stamp mill had become 200, and 500 employees worked in the mine, mills, offices and shops. He owned the Boulder Ditch and water rights to Whitewood Creek, monopolizing the region. His railroad, Black Hills & Fort Pierre Railroad, gave him access to eastern Dakota territory. By 1900, the Homestake owned 300 claims, on 2000 acres, and was worked by more than 2000 employees. In 1901, the mine started using compressed air locomotives, replacing the mules and horses by the 1920s. Charles Washington Merrill introduced cyanidization to augment mercury-amalgamation for gold recovery. "Cyanide Charlie" finally achieved 94 per cent recovery. The gold was shipped to the Denver Mint. By 1906, the Ellison Shaft reached 1,550 feet, the B&M 1,250 feet, the Golden Star 1,100 feet, and the Golden Prospect 900 feet, producing 1,500,000 tons of ore. A disastrous fire struck on 25 March 1907, which took forty days to extinguish after the mine was flooded. Another disastrous fire struck in 1919. In 1927, company geologist Donald H. McLaughlin used a winze from the 2,000 level to demonstrate ore reached the 3,500 foot level. The Ross shaft was started in 1934, a second winze from the 3,500 foot level reached 4,100 feet, and a third winze from 4,100 feet was started in 1937. The Yates shaft was started in 1938. Production ceased from 1943 until 1945, due to Limitation Order L-208 from the Government. By 1975, mining operations has reached the 6,800 foot level, and two winzes were planned to 8,000 feet. Gold Mining in South Dakota | Largest Gold Mine in North America | Documentary | 1940 TBFA_0007
Views: 32667 The Best Film Archives
Trade Unions, 1910's - Film 4509
 
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A History of the Trade Union Movement. Still of two men sitting in a cottage, one writing at a desk. Another hovers behind standing. Probably reconstruction of the Tolpuddle Martyrs. Still of banner of The General Union of House Carpenters and Joiners. Close up of still of certificate of Registration for Thomas Major with the Order of Friendly Boilermakers. Similar for the United Society of Boilermakers, Iron and Steel Shipbuilders. Still of scroll of same union with their motto "Unity is Strength". Two more ornate scrolls before still of banner of National Union of General Workers, Nine Elms Branch. Group still of a number of men posing for picture from Victorian period. Close up of two elderly gentlemen in bowler hats and suits. Both have white beards. camera then pans along to two others, marginally younger. Close up of one of the men in group photo. Shot of four men in suits, all working-class. Another still of different man from group photograph. Another group photo of younger men. Still of two men working in Edwardian factory. Camera moves to long shot and we can see row of women opposite engaged in factory work. Head shot of middle-aged man with long dark wispy beard. Still of man and woman seated, man possibly Lenin. Still Photograph of a young Keir Hardie in crofter's clothes. Close up of hand-written result of election for West Ham (South) in late 1890's in which Keir Hardie was elected first ILP Member of Parliament by a majority of 1232. Camera withdraws to reveal painting and large crowd viewing result. Still shot of Hardie and Ramsay McDonald at the entrance of a building with a number of other men. Still shot of same two, with others indoors around conference table. Still of what looks like Labour MP's seated in the House of Commons. Indoor still of what looks like crowded Labour Party conference. Painting from high of roofs and smoking chimneys of built up urban area. Still of poor working class family, parents and six children. Close up of parents and baby daughter in mother's arms. Close up of two other children, with the girl holding her sister in her arms. Close up on one of the young boys. Another still of poor family. Father holds yawning baby surrounded by mother and four other children. Long shot of street and poor two-up housing. Children and mothers outside front doors. Drawing of four shoemakers in workshop conditions, a man sewing, a still of a woman carrying clothes material, an agricultural worker in a field, then four men haymaking. Camera pans to front of hay cart where we see horse and more workers. Still of group of farmers (?) then moving shot of men leaving factory by foot, one cycles by on his bicycle. Turning wheel against smoke-filled sky of coal mine. Lift arrives at ground level, then cut to miners, naked to the waist, on their knees, using tools to dig coal. Two more workers, one propping up roof of tunnel. Women above ground pushing carts on track then group of grubby miners in flat caps posing for the camera with their lamps and flasks. Three policemen in capes stand outside deserted coal mine. Long shot of deserted mine with stationary wheel in background. Outdoor still shot of ornate building with columns. Police on horses can be seen restraining large crowd. Two policemen shown in still apprehending youth with no jacket. Another still of six policemen carrying away a demonstrator. Still of man being pulled away by policeman. Shirt round shoulder, possibly blood on face. Close up of earlier shot of man carried away by police. Some more demonstrators being led away by police. Camera closes in on bloodied face of one of the demonstrators. Still of number of young boys, many barefoot, carrying placards in support of Tom Mann. Still of railway coaches with broken windows. Moving picture of horse-drawn wagons of Great Northern Railways passing under police escort watched by male spectators. Empty horse-drawn wagons shown passing row of mounted soldiers. Long high shot of train passing above factory. Smoke billows from train and chimneys. Close up of roof of factory and air vents. Moving platform with crate outdoors of factory. Indoor shot of workers in factory. Then iron and steel workers using pulley to move steel girder, and man up ladders attending to train engine. Two men shown inspecting wheels of train engine in motion.
Views: 915 HuntleyFilmArchives
Out of the Fiery Furnace - Episode 2 - Swords and Plough Shares
 
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From the Stone Age to the era of the silicon chip — metals and minerals have marked the milestones of our civilization. OUT OF THE FIERY FURNACE traces the story of civilization through the exploitation of metals, minerals and energy resources. Renowned radio and BBC television commentator Michael Charlton hosts seven, one-hour programs filmed in more than 50 different parts of the world. This very unusual public television series combines the disciplines of history, science, archeology and economics in order to explore the relationship between technology and society. The development of iron brings about the collapse of the Bronze Age and mankind shifts from agriculture to industry. From this point, mastery over metals forms the basis of history's greatest civilizations. This episode highlights the value of metal in ancient China and Greece. You'll tour ruins of mining operations in Spain and are invited to ponder the world's first technological empire — Rome. (60-minutes) VHS Cover: http://imgur.com/0dE3SnO Disclaimer: This video series, produced in 1986 by Opus Films is shown here for Educational Purposes. It includes footage of cultures in India, China, Near East, etc. and ancient methods of manufacturing metals. It is hoped that this information is useful for archival and educational purposes to viewers all across the world. The video is provided here under the Fair Use policy.
History of Industrial Revolution Documentary
 
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#History Please order ebook/audiobook of this video to support our channel https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/653292, https://www.amazon.co.uk/Industrial-Revolution/dp/B01H2IY62K/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1539456244&sr=1-1&keywords=History+of+Industrial+Revolution+introbooks or https://www.audible.com/pd/Industrial-Revolution-Audiobook/B01H2IY2ME?qid=1539456255&sr=sr_1_1&ref=a_search_c3_lProduct_1_1&pf_rd_p=e81b7c27-6880-467a-b5a7-13cef5d729fe&pf_rd_r=N9EXM6CH47WJCKKPJ24B& The Industrial Revolution was the changeover to new industrial processes from somewhere in 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This evolution comprised of moving from manufacturing goods with hands to machineries, bettered efficacy of water power, manufacturing of new chemicals and producing iron through new ways, usage of steam power, the advancement of machine tools and the upsurge of the factories.
Views: 57340 Education Channel
History of Wales
 
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The history of Wales begins with the arrival of human beings in the region thousands of years ago. Neanderthals lived in what is now Wales, or Cymru in Welsh, at least 230,000 years ago. Homo sapiens had arrived by about 31,000 BC. However, continuous habitation by modern humans dates from the period after the end of the last ice age around 9000 BC, and Wales has many remains from the Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Bronze Age. During the Iron Age the region, like all of Britain south of the Firth of Forth, was dominated by the Celtic Britons and the British language. The Romans, who began their conquest of Britain in AD 43, first campaigned in what is now northeast Wales in 48 against the Deceangli, and gained total control of the region with their defeat of the Ordovices in 79. The Romans departed from Britain in the 5th century, opening the door for the Anglo-Saxon invasion. Thereafter British language and culture began to splinter, and several distinct groups formed. The Welsh people were the largest of these groups, and are generally discussed independently of the other surviving Brythonic-speaking peoples after the 11th century. A number of kingdoms formed in the area now called Wales in the post-Roman period. While the most powerful ruler was acknowledged as King of the Britons, and some rulers extended their control over other Welsh territories and into western England, none were able to unite Wales for long. Internecine struggles and external pressure from the English and later, the Norman conquerors of England, led to the Welsh kingdoms coming gradually under the sway of the English crown. In 1282, the death of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd led to the conquest of the Principality of Wales by King Edward I of England; afterwards, the heir apparent to the English monarch has borne the title "Prince of Wales". The Welsh launched several revolts against English rule, the last significant one being that led by Owain Glyndŵr in the early 15th century. In the 16th century Henry VIII, himself of Welsh extraction as a great grandson of Owen Tudor, passed the Laws in Wales Acts aiming to fully incorporate Wales into the Kingdom of England. Under England's authority, Wales became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 and then the United Kingdom in 1801. Yet, the Welsh retained their language and culture in spite of heavy English dominance. The publication of the extremely significant first complete Welsh translation of the Bible by William Morgan in 1588 greatly advanced the position of Welsh as a literary language. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 8295 Audiopedia
History of Technology Documentary
 
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Please order ebook/audiobook of this video to support our channel https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/696053, https://www.amazon.co.uk/History-of-Technology/dp/B01MZI3MXE/ref=sr_1_6?ie=UTF8&qid=1539623723&sr=1-6&keywords=History+of+Technology+introbooks or https://www.audible.com/pd/History-of-Technology-Audiobook/B01N3C8UWR?qid=1539623731&sr=sr_1_1&ref=a_search_c3_lProduct_1_1&pf_rd_p=e81b7c27-6880-467a-b5a7-13cef5d729fe&pf_rd_r=924JSCF19NVZPTVJ728W& History of technology, it is the history of how humans developed various tools and techniques. It is strongly related with history of humanity since humans are invented almost every invention let it be a tool, technology or foundation of some natural resources.
Views: 27118 Education Channel
Crash Course Big History #8: The Modern Revolution
 
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John and Hank Green talk about modernity. As civilizations grew larger, demand for resources grew along with it. This led people to spread out over larger territories in search of food, natural resources, and new ideas. Website: https://www.bighistoryproject.com/portal Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/bighistoryproject Twitter: https://twitter.com/BigHistoryPro
Views: 79741 Big History Project
Safety lamp
 
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A safety lamp is any of several types of lamp that provides illumination in coal mines and is designed to operate in air that may contain coal dust or gases both of which are potentially flammable or explosive. Until the development of effective electric lamps in the early 1900s miners used flame lamps to provide illumination. Open flame lamps could ignite flammable gases which collected in mines, causing explosions and so safety lamps were developed to enclose the flame and prevent it from igniting the surrounding atmosphere. Flame safety lamps have been replaced in mining with sealed explosion-proof electric lights. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 377 Audiopedia
The Black Railroad Workers That Built America
 
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The construction of the U.S. railway system was the most important industry that black American's ever worked in. More black American's were railroaders than were steel workers, carpenters, coal miners, or were loggers. America's railroad construction perpetuated the use of black slave labor and later exemplified the African-American industrial experience. "The entire southern railroad network that was built during the slavery era was built almost exclusively by slaves. Some of the railroads owned slaves, other railroads hired or rented slaves from slave owners. And the most shocking thing that I found was that women as well as men were actually involved in the hard, dangerous, brutal work of railroad construction." - Ted Kornweibel, author of "Railroads in the African American Experience: A Photographic Journey," *Interview courtesy of KPBS - San Diego State University 2010 VISIT OUR WEBSITE TODAY! http://www.blacktradesmen.us is a social networking website catering to African-American construction tradesmen & tradeswomen. Our dynamic site design, and awesome online tools. provides our members with a unique network to share: information, job leads, videos, photos, training courses, tools & industry news. African-American tradesmen & tradeswomen share a unique history in the construction of the United States. From the development & construction of Americas first capital, to the construction of the worlds largest mass railways infrastructure, African-Americans have cemented a legacy of detailed craftsmanship & robust labor. This history must be admonished and its tradition must be continued into the future for generations of highly skilled tradesmen & tradeswomen to carry with pride! Join today for FREE! www.blacktradesmen.us @blacktradesmen #blacktradesmen #buildingLEGACY PLEASE! SUBSCRIBE, LIKE, SHARE, AND COMMENT! FOLLOW OUR TEAM ON INSTAGRAM @blacktradesmen_us #honorBLACKlabor #PULLMANPORTERS #RAILWORKERS #BLACKTRADESMEN
Views: 177 BLACK TRADESMEN
What Were The Working Conditions In The Industrial Revolution?
 
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Simply, the working conditions were terrible during industrial revolution. Workers were often required to clean their machines during mealtimes at the start of industrial revolution none these laws existed and so working in a factory could prove be very dangerous indeed. Machinery was not always fenced off and what were the working conditions like during industrial revolution? Well, for starters, class who made up kids learn about revolution including long days, poor sometimes dangerous start studying living. Effects of the industrial revolution connect. Working conditions during the industrial revolution schools history. As factories were being built, businesses in need of workers. Working and living conditions during the industrial revolution what were working in by ella hartley on open door wikipediaworking social studies help center. Html url? Q webcache. Bbc gcse bitesize working conditions in factories. Industrial revolution working conditions for kids ducksters. It started mar 27, 2014 working conditions in the industrial revolution men's roles men were most expensive. Working and living conditions the industrial revolution. Long working hours normal shifts were usually 12 14 a day, with extra time required during busy periods. Lesson industrial revolution (women in world history curriculum). Working conditions during the industrial revolution youtube. Weebly working and living conditions. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, other study tools the invention of steam powered machinery came industrial revolution, a period when there was boom in mass production products. Googleusercontent search. In some mines, both the coal and miners were brought to surface in wooden safety was very poor early industrial factories women spending just as much time working during revolution, laborers factories, mills, mines worked but these often under strict conditions with long hours of labor what effect revolution on factory workers? Since neither machines nor methods work designed for safety, many fatal jan 23, 2014definition (issue) our online dictionary has general public became concerned accidents only when scores workers killed law unfinished children not treated well, overworked, underpaid a before old hard little or no pay find out more about history including videos, wages those who labored low could be sound smart child useful because their size allowed them move restrict improve conditions, it took market crash finally sway opinion part fueled by economic necessity women, unsanitary dangerous. Fathers and sons in the mines would cut information about working conditions during industrial revolution. With a long line of people willing to work, employers could set wages as low they wanted because were do work got paid working conditions in factories. Industries such as the cotton trade were particularly hard for workers to endure long hours of labour. Working and living conditions during the industrial revolution working in fact
Views: 157 Your Question I
History of Germany Documentary
 
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#History #Germany Please order ebook/audiobook of this video to support our channel https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/678402, https://www.amazon.co.uk/History-of-Germany/dp/B01LFTN06K/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1538744910&sr=1-1&keywords=History+of+Germany+introbooks or https://www.audible.com/pd/History-of-Germany-Audiobook/B01LFTNE7U?qid=1538744917&sr=sr_1_1&ref=a_search_c3_lProduct_1_1&pf_rd_p=e81b7c27-6880-467a-b5a7-13cef5d729fe&pf_rd_r=T3FH5Z2T989043BBWVAX& Germany is a great power today, and has the world’s 4th largest economy. It is a global leader in various technological and industrial sectors along with being the world’s 3rd largest importer and exporter of goods. Watch this video to learn the fundamentals of the German History.
Views: 72564 Education Channel
Timeline of United States inventions (1890–1945) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Timeline of United States inventions (1890–1945) Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A timeline of United States inventions (1890–1945) encompasses the ingenuity and innovative advancements of the United States within a historical context, dating from the Progressive Era to the end of World War II, which have been achieved by inventors who are either native-born or naturalized citizens of the United States. Copyright protection secures a person's right to his or her first-to-invent claim of the original invention in question, highlighted in Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the United States Constitution which gives the following enumerated power to the United States Congress: In 1641, the first patent in North America was issued to Samuel Winslow by the General Court of Massachusetts for a new method of making salt. On April 10, 1790, President George Washington signed the Patent Act of 1790 (1 Stat. 109) into law which proclaimed that patents were to be authorized for "any useful art, manufacture, engine, machine, or device, or any improvement therein not before known or used." On July 31, 1790, Samuel Hopkins of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, became the first person in the United States to file and to be granted a patent under the new U.S. patent statute. The Patent Act of 1836 (Ch. 357, 5 Stat. 117) further clarified United States patent law to the extent of establishing a patent office where patent applications are filed, processed, and granted, contingent upon the language and scope of the claimant's invention, for a patent term of 14 years with an extension of up to an additional 7 years.From 1836 to 2011, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has granted a total of 7,861,317 patents relating to several well-known inventions appearing throughout the timeline below. Some examples of patented inventions between the years 1890 and 1945 include John Froelich's tractor (1892), Ransom Eli Olds' assembly line (1901), Willis Carrier's air-conditioning (1902), the Wright Brothers' airplane (1903), and Robert H. Goddard's liquid-fuel rocket (1926).
Views: 321 wikipedia tts
Black Slave Owner and Breeder in South Carolina ~ The Interesting Story of William Ellison
 
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https://www.facebook.com/hiddencolumbia/videos/10150197461001481/ ....William Ellison was one of the wealthiest men in the South as well as being a black, former slave. He owned cotton gins, plantations, and 68 slaves. And from accounts of the time, he wasn't very nice...At the peak of slavery in the United States, large numbers of free Negroes owned black slaves; in fact, in numbers disproportionate to their representation in society at large. In 1860 only a small minority of whites owned slaves. According to the U.S. census report for that last year before the Civil War, there were nearly 27 million whites in the country. Some 8 million of them lived in the slaveholding states. The census also determined that there were fewer than 385,000 individuals who owned slaves. Even if all slaveholders had been white, that would amount to only 1.4 percent of whites in the country (or 4.8 % of southern whites owning one or more slaves, however, around 30% for free blacks owned slaves). In the rare instances when the ownership of slaves by free Negroes is acknowledged in the history books, justification centers on the claim that black slave masters were simply individuals who purchased the freedom of a spouse or child from a white slaveholder and had been unable to legally manumit them. Although this did indeed happen at times, it is a misrepresentation of the majority of instances, one which is debunked by records of the period on blacks who owned slaves. These include individuals such as Justus Angel and Mistress L. Horry, of Colleton District, South Carolina, who each owned 84 slaves in 1830. In fact, in 1830 a fourth of the free Negro slave masters in South Carolina owned 10 or more slaves; eight owning 30 or more.
Views: 1962897 Wise Wanderer
Thorium.
 
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http://ThoriumRemix.com/ Thorium is an abundant material which can be transformed into massive quantities of energy. To do so efficiently requires a very different nuclear reactor than the kind we use today- Not one that uses solid fuel rods, but a reactor in which the fuel is kept in a liquid state. Not one that uses pressurized water as a coolant, but a reactor that uses chemically stable molten salts. Such a reactor is called a "Molten Salt Reactor". Many different configurations are possible. Some of these configurations can harness Thorium very efficiently. This video explores the attributes of Molten Salt Reactors. Why are they compelling? And why do many people (including myself) see them as the only economical way of fully harnessing ALL our nuclear fuels... including Thorium. This video has been under development since 2012. I hope it conveys to you why I personally find Molten Salt Reactors so compelling, as do the many volunteers and supporters who helped create it. Much of the footage was shot by volunteers. All music was created by: http://kilowattsmusic.com To support this project, please visit: https://patreon.com/thorium Entities pursuing Molten Salt Reactors are... Flibe Energy - http://flibe-energy.com/ Terrestrial Energy - http://terrestrialenergy.com/ Moltex Energy - http://www.moltexenergy.com/ ThorCon Power - http://thorconpower.com/ Transatomic - http://www.transatomicpower.com/ Seaborg - http://seaborg.co/ Copenhagen Atomics - http://www.copenhagenatomics.com/ TerraPower - http://terrapower.com/ Bhabha Atomic Research Centre - http://www.barc.gov.in/ Chinese Academy of Sciences - http://english.cas.cn/ Regular Thorium conferences are organized by: http://thoriumenergyalliance.com/ http://thoriumenergyworld.com/ Table of Contents 0:00:00 Space 0:17:29 Constraints 0:28:22 Coolants 0:40:15 MSRE 0:48:54 Earth 0:59:46 Thorium 1:22:03 LFTR 1:36:13 Revolution 1:44:58 Forward 1:58:11 ROEI 2:05:41 Beginning 2:08:36 History 2:38:59 Dowtherm 2:47:57 Salt 2:51:44 Pebbles 3:06:07 India 3:18:44 Caldicott 3:35:55 Fission 3:56:22 Spectrum 4:04:25 Chemistry 4:12:51 Turbine 4:22:27 Waste 4:40:15 Decommission 4:54:39 Candlelight 5:13:06 Facts 5:26:08 Future 5:55:39 Pitches 5:56:17 Terrestrial 6:08:33 ThorCon 6:11:45 Flibe 6:20:51 End 6:25:53 Credits Some of this footage is remixed from non-MSR related sources, to help explain the importance of energy for both space exploration and everyday life here on Earth. Most prominently... Pandora's Promise - https://youtu.be/bDw3ET3zqxk Dr. Neil DeGrasse Tyson - https://youtu.be/Pun76NZMjCk Dr. Robert Zubrin - https://youtu.be/EKQSijn9FBs Mars Underground - https://youtu.be/tcTZvNLL0-w Andy Weir & Adam Savage - https://youtu.be/5SemyzKgaUU Periodic Table Videos - https://youtube.com/channel/UCtESv1e7ntJaLJYKIO1FoYw
Views: 142924 gordonmcdowell
The Undiscovered | 3 of 5 | EARTH || Radcliffe Institute
 
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The 2018 Radcliffe Institute science symposium, “The Undiscovered,” focuses on how scientists explore realities they cannot anticipate. Speakers from across the disciplines of modern science present personal experiences and discuss how to train scientists, educators, and funders to foster the expertise and open-mindedness needed to reveal undiscovered aspects of the world around us. EARTH (3:23) Nathan E. Hultman, director of the Center for Global Sustainability and associate professor in the School of Public Policy, University of Maryland Discussant: Conevery Bolton Valencius, professor of history, Boston College DISCUSSION (27:38) AUDIENCE Q&A (32:22) For information about the Radcliffe Institute and its many public programs, visit https://www.radcliffe.harvard.edu/. Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/RadcliffeInstitute Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/RadInstitute Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/radcliffe.institute
Views: 1570 Harvard University
Історія України History of Ukraine (субтитри з перекладом)
 
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про Крим: 39:43 Козаки допомогли Росії відвоювати Крим від Туреччини 56:55 Донбас 2:16:28 Крим переданий Україні про Росію 12:46 / 31:16 НАРОДЖЕННЯ НАЦІЇ (2008) Єжи Гофман https://youtu.be/crDrjmKsxIM 1:34 Київ (401-500) 2:16 Візантія (330-1453) 2:45 Княгиня Ольга (890 - 969) приймає християнство 3:28 Херсонес 4:06 Володимир Великий (958 - 1015) 4:29 Ярослав Мудрий (978 - 1054) 4:39 Софійський собор (1100 р.) 5:31 Анна - королева Франції (1030 - 1075) 6:41 Володимир Мономах (1053-1125) 7:20 Ю Долгорукий (1099 - 1157) 7:26 Москва (1147) 7:37 монголи (1223) Чингісхан + (1237) хан Батий Монгольська імперія 10:16 Гал-Вол Князівство або Королівство Русі 11:43 падіння Київської Русі - 10:49 Львів (1240) Золота Орда (1240 - 1502) помирає останній Гал Вол Князь Польща забирає територію Литва забирає територію Литовські князі заміняють Рюриковичів (приймають православ'я) 12:37 знищена Візантійська імперія (1453) Термін МАЛОРОСІЯ: початок 14 cтоліття https://youtu.be/ZC510lQY9zQ?t=30 12:42 Іван III Грозний (1440-1505) скидає орду + одружується з дочкою останнього імператора Візантії 12:46 Міф про Росію (Третій Рим) 13:07 Крим Після занепаду Римської імперії (27 д.н.е. - 453) Херсонес з округою і Пантікапей успадкувала Візантійська імперія. (330-1453) після розпаду Золотої Орди (1240–1502) Кримське ханство (1441) 13:53 Роксолана (1502 - 1558) 1569 році Польща і Литва об'єднуються в люблінській унії 15:20 польське кріпацтво братства + відродження православ'я 17:14 Запорізька Січ (1552) 18:33 УКР змінює назву РУСЬ 18:40 козак 20:15 Брестський союз (1596) 20:18 уніати - Східні катол церкви визнали верховенство Риму відлучили православних від церкви 21:08 Гетьман Сагайдачний (1570 - 1622) допомагав Польщі 23:05 Православ'я 22:05 Києво-Могилянська академія (1632) 23:28 Я. Вишневецький (1612 - 1651) переходить до католиків Русь втрачає знані роди 23:31 католицизм / повстання козаків 24:54 Б Хмельницький (1595 - 1657) з татарами проти Польщі (1648) перемоги козаків - заплатив хану невільниками 1651 поразка у битві в Берестечко хан тікає - Богун польсько - українська війна - після зради хана Хмельницький шукає союзника 30:04 Переяславська Рада (𝟏𝟔𝟓𝟒) СОЮЗ З РОСІЄЮ Поляки перемагають Шведів Росія і Польща поділила Україну 34:39 І Мазепа (1639 - 1709) і Карл XII проти Росії (Петра I) 37:06 Полтавська битва (1709) Катерина II ліквідує Гетьманство (1764) козаки тікають на Слобожанщину козаки допомагають Росії побороти турецьке ханство 40:11 після 223 років перестає існувати Запорізька Січ (1552-1709) 𝟏𝟕𝟕𝟓 російські війська зайшла на Запоріжжя 40:27 Соловки - заслання останнього гетьмана Калнишевського- Франц революція (1789 рік) 48:18 заборонена Греко-Католицька Церква 48:49 Київський університет (1833) 50:52 Т. Шевченко (1814 - 1861) (47 років) 54:57 синьо-жовтий прапор 55:45 Братство Кирила та Мефодія 56:32 нац-визвол рух 56:55 Кримська війна (1853-1856 р) 57:07 Олександр II (1818 - 1881) скасовує кріпацтво 57:26 м. Донецьк (1868 р.) 58:56 "Зелений клин" 59:23 історик В Антонович (1834 - 1908) 59:28 М Драгоманов (1841-1895) 1:00:42 Л Українка (1871 - 1913) (42 роки) 1:02:13 НТШ (1873) 1:11:03 М Грушевський 1:03:27 І Франко (1856 - 1916) 1:04:22 "Історія Укр-Русі" 1:04:49 мит. А Шептицький (1865 - 1944) нац свідомість в еміграції 1:06:31 Перша світова війна 1914 р 1:07:32 Д Донцов (1883 - 1973) 1:07:57 (1914) Російська окупація 1:11:24 С Петлюра https://youtu.be/axdY3GH-qYE 1:10:48 Центральна Рада (1917) Зах-укр Нар Респ ЗУНР (1918) 1:19:29 Укр Галицька армія 1:30:48 Рос. голод (1921) 1:41:21 ГОЛОДОМОР (1932-1933) 11,000,000 жертв 1:45:55 (1937-1938) арешти розстріли - Гулаг 1:46:54 знищення укр ідент 1:49:11 Укр нац-демокр альянс (УНДО) 1:42:20 Стрільці 1:50:49 (УВО) Укр військ орг (Прага) Є Коновалець 1:51:19 Д Донцов - ідеолог укр. націоналізму 1:52:00 (молодь) УВО входить у -- : Орг Укр Нац (ОУН) 1:52:52 (у 1933 у Польщі ) С Бандера, стає головою ОУН 1:55:03 А Волошин 1:55:27 падіння Карпатської України ділить ОУН на дві фракції: Мельниківців і Бандерівців 1:56:11 Друга Світова війна (1939 - 1945 рр.) 1:59:17 сліди НКВС - Батальйон Нахтіґаль (соловей-бандерівці) 1:51:43 Незалежна Укр. Держава 1:44:50 Бандера (1909 - 1959) 1:53:42 Бабин Яр 1:55:40 Партизанська війна 1:44:01 Організація націоналістів "Укр" (ОУН) 1:57:42 Роман Шухевич 1:58:37 Волинь 1:58:57 УПА 2:00:10 етнічні чистки (1943) (1920) польські офіцери погрожують селянам 1:25:16 2:02:32 СС Галицька дивізія https://youtu.be/Q_T4kaGeRpI 1:39:56 РУСИН змінює термін українець 2:06:14 Гулаг 2:06:31 Ялта колективізація + депортаційні акції після Голодомору (1938 р -) https://youtu.be/0mDEKIs-0V0?t=33m57s 2:10:30 Операція "Вісла" 2:12:00 Скасування грек-катол церкви 1:49:25 анексія Зах Укр 2:16:33 повернення Криму до України 2:18:25 Відлига (1950 1960 роки) 2:30:09 (26 квітня 1986 р.) - Чорнобильська катастрофа 2:35:30 Рух 2:37:29 (1991) Незалежність 2:50:29 "Помаранчева революція" (2004)
Views: 108687 kasia prada
GMO's Revealed: Episode 1
 
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EPISODE 1: FACT OR FICTION? Triple Board-Certified Dr. Zach Bush busts open the #1 myth about GMOs (so you won’t be fooled)… How the “dust bowl” and the Vietnam war poisoned today’s food… AND: The real reason GMOs pose such a serious threat to humans (it’s probably NOT what you think) Vani Hari shares the exact steps you can take TODAY to protect your family from further exposure… AND how to start healing the damage already done by these foods. Vani also shares how one chemical inside GMOs—that is known to cause cancer—has made its way into just about every food we eat. Finally, Gunnar Lovelace will hand you a roadmap to change… How we can save the next generation from cancer and chronic-disease-riddled life we accept as “normal” AND: The ONE STEP you can take TODAY to reverse the toxic effects of GMO foods so your family can heal…
Views: 360411 GMOs Revealed
Cohabitation & What is Wrong with Ecological Art
 
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This talk debates the different perspectives and problems on our planet, concerning exploitation of labor, extraction of minerals, and its consequences. It addresses issues of cohabitation in terms of living in the same time and space where different worlds and cosmo-visions exist simultaneously, the paradigm of the modern man, and culture. Is making art on these issues self-important and contributing itself to waste? And what is the role of art in general in this context? Lara Almarcegui, Artist, Rotterdam; Julian Charrière, Artist, Berlin; Luise Faurschou, Founder and Director, ART 2030 and Faurschou Art Resources, Copenhagen. Moderator: Ana Paula Cohen, Independent Curator, Editor and Writer, São Paulo Saturday, June 17, 2017, 10am - 11:30am Filmed on site at Art Basel in Basel 2017.
Views: 1045 Art Basel
Kiley Fellow Lecture: Danielle Choi
 
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Danielle Choi is an Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. She teaches in the Masters of Landscape Architecture core studio sequence and leads design research seminars. Choi’s research concerns the role of landscape architecture in the political ecology of the built environment. At the turn of the 20th century, large-scale infrastructure and public parks in American cities co-authored multiple narratives of environmental control, crisis management, and regional boundaries. Currently, her research on these issues concerns civil waterworks, aquatic ecology and the public realm in Chicago, and the politics of contemporary landscape preservation in these living environments. Choi is a licensed landscape architect in New York State and founder of LILAC. She was the 2016-2017 Daniel Urban Kiley Fellow in Landscape Architecture at the GSD. Prior to joining the GSD, she taught studio in urban design at Columbia University GSAPP and was a senior associate at Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates in New York City, where she led strategy and design of complex urban landscapes and managed large, multi-disciplinary teams. Choi also worked as a designer at Topotek in Berlin and SCAPE in New York City. She holds a Bachelor of Arts in art history from the University of Chicago and a Masters in Landscape Architecture from the GSD, where she received the Jacob Weidenmann graduation award for excellence in design.
Views: 1423 Harvard GSD
History of the United States (1865–1918) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of the United States (1865–1918) Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The history of the United States from 1865 until 1918 covers the Reconstruction Era, the Gilded Age, and the Progressive Era, and includes the rise of industrialization and the resulting surge of immigration in the United States. This article focuses on political, economic, and diplomatic history. This period of rapid economic growth and soaring prosperity in the North and the West (but not in the South) saw the U.S. become the world's dominant economic, industrial, and agricultural power. The average annual income (after inflation) of non-farm workers grew by 75% from 1865 to 1900, and then grew another 33% by 1918.With a decisive victory in 1865 over Southern secessionists in the Civil War, the United States became a united and powerful nation with a strong national government. Reconstruction brought the end of legalized slavery plus citizenship for the former slaves, but their new-found political power was rolled back within a decade, and they became second-class citizens under a "Jim Crow" system of deeply pervasive segregation that would stand for the next 80–90 years. Politically, during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System the nation was mostly dominated by Republicans (except for two Democratic presidents). After 1900 and the assassination of President William McKinley, the Progressive Era brought political, business, and social reforms (e.g., new roles for and government expansion of education, higher status for women, a curtailment of corporate excesses, and modernization of many areas of government and society). The Progressives worked through new middle-class organizations to fight against the corruption and behind-the-scenes power of entrenched, state political party organizations and big-city "machines". They demanded—and won—women's right to vote, and the nationwide prohibition of alcohol 1920-1933. In an unprecedented wave of European immigration, 27.5 million new arrivals between 1865 and 1918 provided the labor base necessary for the expansion of industry and agriculture, as well as the population base for most of fast-growing urban America. By the late nineteenth century, the United States had become a leading global industrial power, building on new technologies (such as the telegraph and steel), an expanding railroad network, and abundant natural resources such as coal, timber, oil, and farmland, to usher in the Second Industrial Revolution. There were also two very important wars. The U.S. easily defeated Spain in 1898, which unexpectedly brought a small empire. Cuba quickly was given independence, as well as the Philippines (in 1946). Puerto Rico (and some smaller islands) became permanent U.S. possessions, as did Alaska (added by purchase in 1867). The independent Republic of Hawaii voluntarily joined the U.S. as a territory in 1898. The United States tried and failed to broker a peace settlement for World War I, then entered the war after Germany launched a submarine campaign against U.S. merchant ships that were supplying Germany's enemy countries. The publicly stated goals were to uphold American honor, crush German militarism, and reshape the postwar world. After a slow mobilization, the U.S. helped bring about a decisive Allied Forces victory by supplying badly needed financing, food, and millions of fresh and eager soldiers.
Views: 18 wikipedia tts
Environmentalism
 
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Environmentalism is a broad philosophy, ideology and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the concerns of non-human elements. Environmentalism advocates the preservation, restoration and/or improvement of the natural environment, and may be referred to as a movement to control pollution or protect plant and animal diversity. For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic, environmental ethics, biodiversity, ecology and the biophilia hypothesis figure predominantly. At its crux, environmentalism is an attempt to balance relations between humans and the various natural systems on which they depend in such a way that all the components are accorded a proper degree of sustainability. The exact measures and outcomes of this balance is controversial and there are many different ways for environmental concerns to be expressed in practice. Environmentalism and environmental concerns are often represented by the color green, but this association has been appropriated by the marketing industries and is a key tactic of greenwashing. Environmentalism is opposed by anti-environmentalism, which takes a skeptical stance against many environmentalist perspectives. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 503 Audiopedia
Timeline of women in science | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_women_in_science 00:00:46 1 Ancient history 00:02:15 2 Middle Ages 00:04:05 3 16th century 00:05:21 4 17th century 00:08:32 5 18th century 00:15:16 6 Early 19th century 00:20:49 7 Late 19th century 00:30:49 8 Early 20th century 00:30:59 8.1 1900s 00:36:28 8.2 1910s 00:41:27 8.3 1920s 00:44:41 8.4 1930s 00:48:44 8.5 1940s 00:52:58 9 Late 20th century 00:53:09 9.1 1950s 00:58:32 9.2 1960s 01:03:35 9.3 1970s 01:07:35 9.4 1980s 01:10:29 9.5 1990s 01:13:56 10 21st century 01:24:14 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7983986663362643 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= This is a timeline of women in science, spanning from ancient history up to the 21st century. While the timeline primarily focuses on women involved with natural sciences such as astronomy, biology, chemistry and physics, it also includes women from the social sciences (e.g. sociology, psychology) and the formal sciences (e.g. mathematics, computer science), as well as notable science educators and medical scientists. The chronological events listed in the timeline relate to both scientific achievements and gender equality within the sciences.
Views: 82 wikipedia tts
Technological and industrial history of the United States | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Technological and industrial history of the United States Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The technological and industrial history of the United States describes the United States' emergence as one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world. The availability of land and literate labor, the absence of a landed aristocracy, the prestige of entrepreneurship, the diversity of climate and a large easily accessed upscale and literate free market all contributed to America's rapid industrialisation. The availability of capital, development by the free market of navigable rivers, and coastal waterways, and the abundance of natural resources facilitated the cheap extraction of energy all contributed to America's rapid industrialization. Fast transport by the very large railroad built in the mid-19th century, and the Interstate Highway System built in the late 20th century, enlarged the markets and reducing shipping and production costs. The legal system facilitated business operations and guaranteed contracts. Cut off from Europe by the embargo and the British blockade in the War of 1812 (1807–15), entrepreneurs opened factories in the Northeast that set the stage for rapid industrialization modeled on British innovations. From its emergence as an independent nation, the United States has encouraged science and innovation. As a result, the United States has been the birthplace of 161 of Britannica's 321 Greatest Inventions, including items such as the airplane, internet, microchip, laser, cellphone, refrigerator, email, microwave, personal computer, Liquid-crystal display and light-emitting diode technology, air conditioning, assembly line, supermarket, bar code, automated teller machine, and many more.The early technological and industrial development in the United States was facilitated by a unique confluence of geographical, social, and economic factors. The relative lack of workers kept United States wages nearly always higher than corresponding British and European workers and provided an incentive to mechanize some tasks. The United States population had some semi-unique advantages in that they were former British subjects, had high English literacy skills, for that period (over 80% in New England), had strong British institutions, with some minor American modifications, of courts, laws, right to vote, protection of property rights and in many cases personal contacts among the British innovators of the Industrial Revolution. They had a good basic structure to build on. Another major advantage, which the British lacked, was no inherited aristocratic institutions. The eastern seaboard of the United States, with a great number of rivers and streams along the Atlantic seaboard, provided many potential sites for constructing textile mills necessary for early industrialization. The technology and information on how to build a textile industry was largely provided by Samuel Slater (1768–1835) who emigrated to New England in 1789. He had studied and worked in British textile mills for a number of years and immigrated to the United States, despite restrictions against it, to try his luck with U.S. manufacturers who were trying to set up a textile industry. He was offered a full partnership if he could succeed—he did. A vast supply of natural resources, the technological knowledge on how to build and power the necessary machines along with a labor supply of mobile workers, often unmarried females, all aided early industrialization. The broad knowledge of the Industrial Revolution and Scientific revolution helped facilitate understanding for the construction and invention of new manufacturing businesses and technologies. A limited government that would allow them to succeed or fail on their own merit helped. After the close of the American Revolution in 1783, the new government continued the strong property rights established under British rule and established a rule of law necessary to protect those ...
Views: 41 wikipedia tts
American Industrial Revolution | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technological_and_industrial_history_of_the_United_States 00:07:50 1 Pre-European technology 00:09:48 2 Colonial era 00:09:58 2.1 Agriculture 00:10:59 2.2 Artisanship 00:11:52 2.3 Silver working 00:16:23 2.4 Factories and mills 00:23:11 2.5 Turnpikes and canals 00:32:28 2.6 Steamboats 00:35:28 2.7 Mining 00:35:36 2.8 Civil War 00:35:49 3 Technological systems and infrastructure 00:36:30 3.1 Railroads 00:39:13 3.2 Iron and steel-making 00:43:10 3.3 Telegraph and telephone 00:46:00 3.4 Petroleum 00:49:59 3.5 Electricity 00:56:24 3.6 Automobiles 01:00:05 4 Effects of industrialization 01:00:15 4.1 Agricultural production 01:03:12 4.2 Urbanization 01:04:36 4.3 Labor issues and immigration 01:06:25 4.4 Banking, trading, and financial services 01:07:03 4.5 Regulation 01:07:37 5 Military-industrial-academic complex 01:08:52 5.1 Research universities 01:11:08 5.2 World War I and World War II 01:13:18 5.3 Cold War and Space Race 01:15:16 5.4 Computers and information networks 01:16:46 6 Service industry 01:16:56 6.1 Health care and biotechnology 01:19:06 6.2 News, media, and entertainment 01:19:22 7 Technology and society 01:19:40 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8999391665820107 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The technological and industrial history of the United States describes the United States' emergence as one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world. The availability of land and literate labor, the absence of a landed aristocracy, the prestige of entrepreneurship, the diversity of climate and a large easily accessed upscale and literate free market all contributed to America's rapid industrialisation. The availability of capital, development by the free market of navigable rivers, and coastal waterways, and the abundance of natural resources facilitated the cheap extraction of energy all contributed to America's rapid industrialization. Fast transport by the very large railroad built in the mid-19th century, and the Interstate Highway System built in the late 20th century, enlarged the markets and reducing shipping and production costs. The legal system facilitated business operations and guaranteed contracts. Cut off from Europe by the embargo and the British blockade in the War of 1812 (1807–15), entrepreneurs opened factories in the Northeast that set the stage for rapid industrialization modeled on British innovations. From its emergence as an independent nation, the United States has encouraged science and innovation. As a result, the United States has been the birthplace of 161 of Britannica's 321 Greatest Inventions, including items such as the airplane, internet, microchip, laser, cellphone, refrigerator, email, microwave, personal computer, Liquid-crystal display and light-emitting diode technology, air conditioning, assembly line, supermarket, bar code, automated teller machine, and many more.The early technological and industrial development in the United States was facilitated by a unique confluence of geographical, social, and economic factors. The relative lack of workers kept United States wages nearly always higher than corresponding British and European workers and provided an incentive to mechanize some tasks. The United States population had some semi-unique advantages in that they were former British subjects, had high English literacy skills, for that period (over 80% in New England), had strong British institutions, with some minor American modifications, of courts, laws, right to vote, protection of property rights and in many cases personal contacts among the British innovators of the Industrial Revolution. They had a good basic structure to build on. Another major advantage, which the British lacked, was no inherited aristocratic institutions. The eastern seaboard of the United States, with a great number of ri ...
Views: 16 wikipedia tts
History of the United States (1865–1918) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of the United States (1865–1918) Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The history of the United States from 1865 until 1918 covers the Reconstruction Era, the Gilded Age, and the Progressive Era, and includes the rise of industrialization and the resulting surge of immigration in the United States. This article focuses on political, economic, and diplomatic history. This period of rapid economic growth and soaring prosperity in the North and the West (but not in the South) saw the U.S. become the world's dominant economic, industrial, and agricultural power. The average annual income (after inflation) of non-farm workers grew by 75% from 1865 to 1900, and then grew another 33% by 1918.With a decisive victory in 1865 over Southern secessionists in the Civil War, the United States became a united and powerful nation with a strong national government. Reconstruction brought the end of legalized slavery plus citizenship for the former slaves, but their new-found political power was rolled back within a decade, and they became second-class citizens under a "Jim Crow" system of deeply pervasive segregation that would stand for the next 80–90 years. Politically, during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System the nation was mostly dominated by Republicans (except for two Democratic presidents). After 1900 and the assassination of President William McKinley, the Progressive Era brought political, business, and social reforms (e.g., new roles for and government expansion of education, higher status for women, a curtailment of corporate excesses, and modernization of many areas of government and society). The Progressives worked through new middle-class organizations to fight against the corruption and behind-the-scenes power of entrenched, state political party organizations and big-city "machines". They demanded—and won—women's right to vote, and the nationwide prohibition of alcohol 1920-1933. In an unprecedented wave of European immigration, 27.5 million new arrivals between 1865 and 1918 provided the labor base necessary for the expansion of industry and agriculture, as well as the population base for most of fast-growing urban America. By the late nineteenth century, the United States had become a leading global industrial power, building on new technologies (such as the telegraph and steel), an expanding railroad network, and abundant natural resources such as coal, timber, oil, and farmland, to usher in the Second Industrial Revolution. There were also two very important wars. The U.S. easily defeated Spain in 1898, which unexpectedly brought a small empire. Cuba quickly was given independence, as well as the Philippines (in 1946). Puerto Rico (and some smaller islands) became permanent U.S. possessions, as did Alaska (added by purchase in 1867). The independent Republic of Hawaii voluntarily joined the U.S. as a territory in 1898. The United States tried and failed to broker a peace settlement for World War I, then entered the war after Germany launched a submarine campaign against U.S. merchant ships that were supplying Germany's enemy countries. The publicly stated goals were to uphold American honor, crush German militarism, and reshape the postwar world. After a slow mobilization, the U.S. helped bring about a decisive Allied Forces victory by supplying badly needed financing, food, and millions of fresh and eager soldiers.
Views: 35 wikipedia tts
Second Industrial Revolution | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Industrial_Revolution 00:01:56 1 Overview 00:04:18 2 Industry and technology 00:05:05 2.1 Iron 00:06:57 2.2 Steel 00:10:49 2.3 Rail 00:13:02 2.4 Electrification 00:17:06 2.5 Machine tools 00:19:14 2.6 Paper making 00:21:07 2.7 Petroleum 00:24:09 2.8 Chemical 00:25:33 2.9 Maritime technology 00:31:15 2.10 Rubber 00:32:14 2.11 Bicycles 00:33:13 2.12 Automobile 00:35:55 2.13 Applied science 00:41:44 2.14 Fertilizer 00:43:51 2.15 Engines and turbines 00:46:07 2.16 Telecommunications 00:49:18 2.17 Modern business management 00:52:40 3 Socio-economic impacts 00:58:53 4 United Kingdom 01:00:28 5 United States 01:03:42 5.1 Employment distribution 01:05:13 6 Germany 01:07:38 7 Belgium 01:08:33 8 Alternative uses 01:10:09 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.767765046960011 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. The First Industrial Revolution, which ended in the early to mid 1800s, was punctuated by a slowdown in macroinventions before the Second Industrial Revolution in 1870. Though a number of its characteristic events can be traced to earlier innovations in manufacturing, such as the establishment of a machine tool industry, the development of methods for manufacturing interchangeable parts and the invention of the Bessemer Process to produce steel, the Second Industrial Revolution is generally dated between 1870 and 1914 (the start of World War I).Advancements in manufacturing and production technology enabled the widespread adoption of preexisting technological systems such as telegraph and railroad networks, gas and water supply, and sewage systems, which had earlier been concentrated to a few select cities. The enormous expansion of rail and telegraph lines after 1870 allowed unprecedented movement of people and ideas, which culminated in a new wave of globalization. In the same time period, new technological systems were introduced, most significantly electrical power and telephones. The Second Industrial Revolution continued into the 20th century with early factory electrification and the production line, and ended at the start of World War I.
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Crucible Industries | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crucible_Industries 00:01:55 1 History 00:06:13 1.1 Company names 00:07:32 1.2 Founding companies 00:11:55 1.3 Timeline 00:12:20 1.4 Sanderson Brothers and Company 00:14:16 1.5 Halcomb Steel 00:15:01 1.6 Hoyt-Noe Steel Company 00:15:37 1.7 Crucible 00:26:27 2 Knife design and manufacturing 00:28:12 3 Products 00:29:05 3.1 CPM process 00:30:37 4 Publications 00:30:46 4.1 Cataloged Crucible 00:31:59 4.2 Crucible 00:34:13 4.3 Crucible and the U.S. Air Force 00:36:14 5 See also 00:36:56 6 Further reading 00:37:37 6.1 History Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7045694438446244 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Crucible Industries, commonly known as Crucible, is an American company which develops and manufactures specialty steels and is the sole producer of Crucible Particle Metallurgy (CPM) steels. The company produces high speed, stainless and tool steels for the automotive, cutlery, aerospace and machine tool industries.Crucible's history spans over 100 years, and the company inherited some of its ability to produce high-grade steel from England beginning in the late 1800s. Thirteen crucible-steel companies merged in 1900 to become the largest producer of crucible steel in the United States, and this company evolved into a corporation with 1,400 employees in several states. Crucible declined in tandem with the automotive industry during the 1980s, recovering over the next decade. Although the company entered bankruptcy in 2009, a Cleveland corporation revived it as Crucible Specialty Metals Division to continue producing specialty steels at its original site.Some of Crucible's products are manufactured using a powder metallurgy process (their CPM process), resulting in steels with superior mechanical properties. These steels find specialized scientific and industrial applications and are also favoured by knife makers for the production of blades which are tough, hard and corrosion resistant.
Views: 12 wikipedia tts
History of Western civilization | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of Western civilization Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Western civilization traces its roots back to Europe and the Mediterranean. It is linked to the Roman Empire and with Medieval Western Christendom which emerged from the Middle Ages to experience such transformative episodes as the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution, scientific revolution, and the development of liberal democracy. The civilizations of Classical Greece and Ancient Rome are considered seminal periods in Western history; a few cultural contributions also emerged from the pagan peoples of pre-Christian Europe, such as the Celts and Germans, as well as some significant religious contributions derived from Judaism and Hellenistic Judaism stemming back to Second Temple Judea, Galilee, and the early Jewish diaspora; and some other Middle Eastern influences. Christianity and Roman Catholicism has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization, which throughout most of its history, has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture. (There were Christians outside of the West, such as China, India, Russia, Byzantium and the Middle East). Western civilization has spread to produce the dominant cultures of modern Americas and Oceania, and has had immense global influence in recent centuries in many ways. Following the 5th century Fall of Rome, Western Europe entered the Middle Ages, during which period the Catholic Church filled the power vacuum left in the West by the fall of the Western Roman Empire, while the Eastern Roman Empire (or Byzantine Empire) endured in the East for centuries, becoming a Hellenic Eastern contrast to the Latin West. By the 12th century, Western Europe was experiencing a flowering of art and learning, propelled by the construction of cathedrals and the establishment of medieval universities. Christian unity was shattered by the Reformation from the 16th century. A merchant class grew out of city states, initially in the Italian peninsula (see Italian city-states), and Europe experienced the Renaissance from the 14th to the 17th century, heralding an age of technological and artistic advance and ushering in the Age of Discovery which saw the rise of such global European Empires as those of Spain and Portugal. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 18th century. Under the influence of the Enlightenment, the Age of Revolution emerged from the United States and France as part of the transformation of the West into its industrialised, democratised modern form. The lands of North and South America, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand became first part of European Empires and then home to new Western nations, while Africa and Asia were largely carved up between Western powers. Laboratories of Western democracy were founded in Britain's colonies in Australasia from the mid-19th centuries, while South America largely created new autocracies. In the 20th century, absolute monarchy disappeared from Europe, and despite episodes of Fascism and Communism, by the close of the century, virtually all of Europe was electing its leaders democratically. Most Western nations were heavily involved in the First and Second World Wars and protracted Cold War. World War II saw Fascism defeated in Europe, and the emergence of the United States and Soviet Union as rival global powers and a new "East-West" political contrast. Other than in Russia, the European Empires disintegrated after World War II and civil rights movements and widescale multi-ethnic, multi-faith migrations to Europe, the Americas and Oceania lowered the earlier predominance of ethnic Europeans in Western culture. European nations moved towards greater economic and political co-operation through the European Union. The Cold War ended around 1990 with the collapse of Soviet imposed Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. In the 21st century, the Western World retains significant global economic power and influ ...
Views: 326 wikipedia tts
Technological and industrial history of the United States | Wikipedia audio article | Wikipedia  ...
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Technological and industrial history of the United States | Wikipedia audio article Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The technological and industrial history of the United States describes the United States' emergence as one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world. The availability of land and literate labor, the absence of a landed aristocracy, the prestige of entrepreneurship, the diversity of climate and a large easily accessed upscale and literate free market all contributed to America's rapid industrialisation. The availability of capital, development by the free market of navigable rivers, and coastal waterways, and the abundance of natural resources facilitated the cheap extraction of energy all contributed to America's rapid industrialization. Fast transport by the very large railroad built in the mid-19th century, and the Interstate Highway System built in the late 20th century, enlarged the markets and reducing shipping and production costs. The legal system facilitated business operations and guaranteed contracts. Cut off from Europe by the embargo and the British blockade in the War of 1812 (1807–15), entrepreneurs opened factories in the Northeast that set the stage for rapid industrialization modeled on British innovations. From its emergence as an independent nation, the United States has encouraged science and innovation. As a result, the United States has been the birthplace of 161 of Britannica's 321 Greatest Inventions, including items such as the airplane, internet, microchip, laser, cellphone, refrigerator, email, microwave, personal computer, Liquid-crystal display and light-emitting diode technology, air conditioning, assembly line, supermarket, bar code, automated teller machine, and many more.The early technological and industrial development in the United States was facilitated by a unique confluence of geographical, social, and economic factors. The relative lack of workers kept United States wages nearly always higher than corresponding British and European workers and provided an incentive to mechanize some tasks. The United States population had some semi-unique advantages in that they were former British subjects, had high English literacy skills, for that period (over 80% in New England), had strong British institutions, with some minor American modifications, of courts, laws, right to vote, protection of property rights and in many cases personal contacts among the British innovators of the Industrial Revolution. They had a good basic structure to build on. Another major advantage, which the British lacked, was no inherited aristocratic institutions. The eastern seaboard of the United States, with a great number of rivers and streams along the Atlantic seaboard, provided many potential sites for constructing textile mills necessary for early industrialization. The technology and information on how to build a textile industry was largely provided by Samuel Slater (1768–1835) who emigrated to New England in 1789. He had studied and worked in British textile mills for a number of years and immigrated to the United States, despite restrictions against it, to try his luck with U.S. manufacturers who were trying to set up a textile industry. He was offered a full partnership if he could succeed—he did. A vast supply of natural resources, the technological knowledge on how to build and power the necessary machines along with a labor supply of mobile workers, often unmarried females, all aided early industrialization. The broad knowledge of the Industrial Revolution and Scientific revolution helped facilitate understanding for the construction and invention of new manufacturing businesses and technologies. A limited government that would allow them to succeed or fail on their own merit helped. After the close of the American Revolution in 1783, the new government continued the strong property rights established under British rule and established a rule of law necessary to protect those pro ...
Views: 37 wikipedia tts
Historia Ukrainy (z napisami i tłumaczeniem)
 
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o Krymie: 39:43 Kozacy pomogli Rosji wygrać Krym z Turcji 56:55 Donbass 2:16:28 Krym zostaje przeniesiony na Ukrainę o Rosji 12:46 / 31:16 𝐦𝐢𝐬𝐬𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐦𝐢𝐬𝐬𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐩𝐚𝐫𝐭: 1:47:38 NARODZINY NARODU (2008) Jerzy Hoffman 1:34 Kijów (401-500) 2:16 Bizancjum (330-1453) 2:45 Księżniczka Olga (890 - 969) akceptuje chrześcijaństwo 3:28 Chersonese 4:06 Wołodymyr Wielki (958 - 1015) 4:29 Jarosław Mądry (978-1054) 4:39 Katedra Św. Zofii (1100) 5:31 Anna - królowa Francji (1030-1075) 18:41 Vladimir Monomakh (1053-1125) 7:20 Yu Dolgoruky (1099-1157) 7:26 Moskwa 7:37 Mongołowie 10:16 Księstwo Gal-Vol lub Królestwo Rosji 10:49 Lwów Termin MALOROSCIA: początek XIV wieku https://youtu.be/ZC510lQY9zQ?t=30 12:37 Iwan III Grozny (1440-1505) 12:46 Mit o Rosji 13:07 Krym 13:53 Roksolana (1502 - 1558) 15:20 Polskie pańszczyzna 17:14 Zaporizhzhya Sich 18:33 UKR zmienia nazwę RUS 18:40 Kozak 20:15 Brest Union 20:18 Unici - wschodni katolicy Kościoła 21:08 Hetman Sagaidachny (1570 - 1622) 23:05 Prawosławie 23:28 Jestem Vishnevetsky (1612 - 1651) 23:31 Katolicyzm 24:54 B Chmielnicki (1595 - 1657) 30:04 Perejasław Rada 1654 34:39 I Mazepa (1639 - 1709) 37:06 Bitwa pod Połtawą (1709) 40:11 Sycz w Zaporożu (1552-1709) 40:27 Solovki - Rewolucja Franza (1789) 48:18 jest zabronione przez Kościół greckokatolicki 48:49 Uniwersytet Kijowski (1833) 50:55 T. Shevchenko (1814 - 1861) (47 lat) 54:57 niebiesko-żółta flaga 55:45 Bractwo Cyryla i Metodego 56:32 ruch wyzwolenia narodowego 56:55 Krymska wojna (1853-1856) 57:07 Aleksander II (1818 - 1881) znosi poddaństwo 57:26 Donieck (1868) 58:56 "Zielony klin" 59:23 W Antonowiczu (1834 - 1908) 59:28 M Drahomanov (1841-1895) 1:00:42 L Ukrainka (1871 - 1913) (42 lata) 1:02:13 NTSh (1873) 1:11:03 M Grushevsky 1:03:27 I Franco (1856 - 1916) 1:04:22 "Historia Ukr-Rus" 1:04:49 Metropolitan A Sheptytsky (1865 - 1944) świadomość narodowa na emigracji 1:06:31 Pierwsza wojna światowa z 1914 roku 1:07:32 Dontsov (1883 - 1973) 1:07:57 (1914) Rosyjska okupacja 1:11:24 Z Petliurą https://youtu.be/axdY3GH-qYE 1:11:24 Zah-ukr Nara Response ZUNR 1:19:27 Ukr Galicyjska Armia 1:30:48 Ros. głód (1921) 1:41:21 HOLODOMOR (1932-1933) 11 000 000 ofiar 1:45:55 (1937-1938) zostały wykonane aresztowania - Gułag 1:46:54 niszczenie ukr ident 1:49:11 Ukr Sojusz Narodów Demokratycznych (UNDO) 1:42:20 Strzelec "Ukr Sich" 1:50:49 (UFO) Ukr Army Org (Praga) Istnieją Konovalety 1:51:19 D Dontsov - ideolog z ukr. nacjonalizm 1:52:00 (młodzież) UWO jest członkiem -: Org Ukr Nat (OUN) 1:52:52 (w Polsce w 1933 r.) Wraz z Banderą zostaje szefem OUN 1:55:03 I Wołoszyn 1:55:27 Upadek Karpaty-Ukrainy dzieli OUN na dwie frakcje: Melnikovtsev i Banderivtsi 1:56:11 Druga wojna światowa (1939-1945) 1:59:17 ślady NKWD - Batalion Nachtigall (słowika-Bandera) 1:51:43 Niezależny Ukr. Państwo 1:44:50 Bandera (1909 - 1959) 1:53:42 Babin Yar 1:55:40 Wojna partyzancka 1:44:01 Organizacja nacjonalistów "Ukr" (OUN) 1:57:42 Roman Szuachewicz 1:58:37 Wołyń 1:58:57 UPA - Ukraińska Armia Powstańcza 2:00:04 czystki etniczne (1943) 2:02:32 SS Dywizja Galicyjska 1:39:56 RUSIN zmienia termin ukraiński 2:06:14 Gułag 2:06:31 Jałta 2:10:30 Operacja "Wisła" 2:12:00 Anulowanie Kościoła greckokatolickiego 1:49:25 aneksja Zach Ukr 2:16:33 Powrót Krymu na Ukrainę 2:18:25 Odwilż (1950-1960) 2:30:09 (26 kwietnia 1986) - Katastrofa w Czarnobylu 2:35:30 Ruch 2:37:29 (1991) Niezależność 2:50:29 "Pomarańczowa rewolucja" (2004)
Views: 1547 kasia prada
Modern history | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Modern history Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history. Modern history can be further broken down into periods: The early modern period began approximately in the early 16th century; notable historical milestones included the European Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, and the Protestant Reformation. The late modern period began approximately in the mid-18th century; notable historical milestones included the American Revolution, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, the Great Divergence, and the Russian Revolution. It took all of human history up to 1804 for the world's population to reach 1 billion; the next billion came just over a century later, in 1927. Contemporary history is the span of historic events from approximately 1945 that are immediately relevant to the present time.This article primarily covers the 1800–1950 time period with a brief summary of 1500–1800. For a more in depth article on modern times before 1800, see Early Modern period.
Views: 27 wikipedia tts
Living the Promise Symposium: Emerging Technologies
 
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A conversation led by experts at UCR highlights research driving innovation in the areas of energy, environment, transportation, big data, food, and education. Featured presenters include: Professor David Kisailus, Distinguished Professor Charles Wyman, Assistant Professor Kelley Barsanti, Adjunct Professor Wayne Miller, Professor Vassilis Tsotras, Distinguished Professor Julia Bailey-Serres, and Distinguished Professor Susan R. Wessler. This event is the fourth in the Living the Promise Symposia series, which explores the themes of UCR’s comprehensive campaign. Learn more at http://campaign.ucr.edu/. Produced by UCR's Office of Strategic Communications. Follow us! https://twitter.com/UCRiverside https://instagram.com/ucriversideoffi... https://www.facebook.com/UCRiverside
History of the United States (1865–1918) | Wikipedia audio article | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of the United States (1865–1918) | Wikipedia audio article Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The history of the United States from 1865 until 1918 covers the Reconstruction Era, the Gilded Age, and the Progressive Era, and includes the rise of industrialization and the resulting surge of immigration in the United States. This article focuses on political, economic, and diplomatic history. This period of rapid economic growth and soaring prosperity in the North and the West (but not in the South) saw the U.S. become the world's dominant economic, industrial, and agricultural power. The average annual income (after inflation) of non-farm workers grew by 75% from 1865 to 1900, and then grew another 33% by 1918.With a decisive victory in 1865 over Southern secessionists in the Civil War, the United States became a united and powerful nation with a strong national government. Reconstruction brought the end of legalized slavery plus citizenship for the former slaves, but their new-found political power was rolled back within a decade, and they became second-class citizens under a "Jim Crow" system of deeply pervasive segregation that would stand for the next 80–90 years. Politically, during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System the nation was mostly dominated by Republicans (except for two Democratic presidents). After 1900 and the assassination of President William McKinley, the Progressive Era brought political, business, and social reforms (e.g., new roles for and government expansion of education, higher status for women, a curtailment of corporate excesses, and modernization of many areas of government and society). The Progressives worked through new middle-class organizations to fight against the corruption and behind-the-scenes power of entrenched, state political party organizations and big-city "machines". They demanded—and won—women's right to vote, and the nationwide prohibition of alcohol 1920-1933. In an unprecedented wave of European immigration, 27.5 million new arrivals between 1865 and 1918 provided the labor base necessary for the expansion of industry and agriculture, as well as the population base for most of fast-growing urban America. By the late nineteenth century, the United States had become a leading global industrial power, building on new technologies (such as the telegraph and steel), an expanding railroad network, and abundant natural resources such as coal, timber, oil, and farmland, to usher in the Second Industrial Revolution. There were also two very important wars. The U.S. easily defeated Spain in 1898, which unexpectedly brought a small empire. Cuba quickly was given independence, as well as the Philippines (in 1946). Puerto Rico (and some smaller islands) became permanent U.S. possessions, as did Alaska (added by purchase in 1867). The independent Republic of Hawaii voluntarily joined the U.S. as a territory in 1898. The United States tried and failed to broker a peace settlement for World War I, then entered the war after Germany launched a submarine campaign against U.S. merchant ships that were supplying Germany's enemy countries. The publicly stated goals were to uphold American honor, crush German militarism, and reshape the postwar world. After a slow mobilization, the U.S. helped bring about a decisive Allied Forces victory by supplying badly needed financing, food, and millions of fresh and eager soldiers.
Views: 10 wikipedia tts
Modern history | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:51:47
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Modern history Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history. Modern history can be further broken down into periods: The early modern period began approximately in the early 16th century; notable historical milestones included the European Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, and the Protestant Reformation. The late modern period began approximately in the mid-18th century; notable historical milestones included the American Revolution, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, the Great Divergence, and the Russian Revolution. It took all of human history up to 1804 for the world's population to reach 1 billion; the next billion came just over a century later, in 1927. Contemporary history is the span of historic events from approximately 1945 that are immediately relevant to the present time.This article primarily covers the 1800–1950 time period with a brief summary of 1500–1800. For a more in depth article on modern times before 1800, see Early Modern period.
Views: 27 wikipedia tts
Robots in science fiction | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_fictional_robots_and_androids 00:00:49 1 Theatre 00:01:40 2 Literature 00:01:48 2.1 19th century and earlier 00:04:41 2.2 Early 1900s 00:05:35 2.3 1920s 00:06:42 2.4 1930s 00:07:48 2.5 1940s 00:09:27 2.6 1950s and 1960s 00:11:54 2.7 1970s 00:13:11 2.8 1980s 00:14:38 2.9 1990s 00:15:22 2.10 2000s 00:16:17 3 Radio 00:16:49 4 Music 00:17:28 5 Film 00:17:36 5.1 1940s and earlier 00:19:11 5.2 1950s 00:20:26 5.3 1960s 00:21:54 5.4 1970s 00:24:25 5.5 1980s 00:27:10 5.6 1990s 00:29:40 5.7 2000s 00:34:22 5.8 2010s 00:37:12 6 Television films and series 00:37:22 6.1 1960s and earlier 00:46:05 6.2 1970s 00:55:07 6.3 1980s 01:01:38 6.4 1990s 01:06:57 6.5 2000s 01:16:27 6.6 2010s 01:28:15 7 Comics 01:28:23 7.1 Comic Books/graphic novels 01:28:33 7.1.1 American 01:32:33 7.1.2 Australian 01:32:45 7.1.3 British 01:33:30 7.1.4 Franco-Belgian 01:34:33 7.1.5 Other European 01:35:57 7.1.6 South American 01:36:14 7.1.7 Manga (Japanese comics) 01:38:22 7.2 Comic strips 01:39:19 7.3 Web comics 01:41:14 8 Web-based media 01:41:30 8.1 Animated shorts/series 01:41:44 8.1.1 Flash 01:42:20 8.2 Web series 01:42:41 8.3 Machinima 01:43:15 8.4 Podcasts 01:44:49 9 Computer and video games 01:56:08 10 See also 01:56:43 11 Notes 01:56:51 12 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.955524837734765 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Robots and androids have frequently been depicted or described in works of fiction. The word "robot" itself comes from a work of fiction, Karel Čapek's play, R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), written in 1920 and first performed in 1921. This list of fictional robots and androids is chronological, and categorised by medium. It includes all depictions of robots, androids and gynoids in literature, television, and cinema; however, robots that have appeared in more than one form of media are not necessarily listed in each of those media. This list is intended for all fictional computers which are described as existing in a humanlike or mobile form. It shows how the concept has developed in the human imagination through history. Static computers depicted in fiction are discussed in the separate list of fictional computers.
Views: 171 wikipedia tts
Socialist Party of America | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Socialist Party of America Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a multi-tendency democratic socialist and social democratic political party in the United States formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party of America which had split from the main organization in 1899.In the first decades of the 20th century, it drew significant support from many different groups, including trade unionists, progressive social reformers, populist farmers and immigrants. However, it refused to form coalitions with other parties, or even to allow its members to vote for other parties. Eugene V. Debs twice won over 900,000 votes in presidential elections (1912 and 1920) while the party also elected two Representatives (Victor L. Berger and Meyer London), dozens of state legislators, more than a hundred mayors and countless lesser officials. The party's staunch opposition to American involvement in World War I, although welcomed by many, also led to prominent defections, official repression and vigilante persecution. The organization was further shattered by a factional war over how to respond to the October Revolution in Imperial Russia in 1917 and the establishment of the Communist International in 1919—many members left the party in favor of the Communist Party USA. After endorsing Robert M. La Follette's presidential campaign in 1924, the party returned to independent action at the presidential level. It had modest growth in the early 1930s behind presidential candidate Norman Thomas. The party's appeal was weakened by the popularity of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal, the organization and flexibility of the Communist Party under Earl Browder and the resurgent labor movement's desire to support sympathetic Democratic Party politicians. A divisive and ultimately unsuccessful attempt to broaden the party by admitting followers of Leon Trotsky and Jay Lovestone caused the traditional "Old Guard" to leave and form the Social Democratic Federation. While the party was always strongly anti-fascist as well as anti-Stalinist, its opposition to American entry in World War II cost it both internal and external support. The party stopped running presidential candidates after 1956, when its nominee Darlington Hoopes won fewer than 6,000 votes. In the party's last decades, its members, many of them prominent in the labor, peace, civil rights and civil liberties movements, fundamentally disagreed about the socialist movement's relationship to the labor movement and the Democratic Party and about how best to advance democracy abroad. In 1970–1973, these strategic differences had become so acute that the Socialist Party of America changed its name to Social Democrats, USA. Leaders of two of its caucuses formed separate socialist organizations, the Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee and the Socialist Party USA, the former of which became a precursor to the largest socialist organization in the United States in 2018, the Democratic Socialists of America.
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History of Europe | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of Europe Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present. During the Neolithic era and the time of the Indo-European migrations Europe saw migrations from east and southeast and the following important cultural and material exchange. The period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of ancient Greece. Later, the Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin. The fall of the Roman Empire in AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages. Beginning in the 14th century a Renaissance of knowledge challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology. Simultaneously, the Protestant Reformation set up Protestant churches primarily in Germany, Scandinavia and England. After 1800, the Industrial Revolution brought prosperity to Britain and Western Europe. The main powers set up colonies in most of the Americas and Africa, and parts of Asia. In the 20th century, World War I and World War II resulted in massive numbers of deaths. The Cold War dominated European geo-politics from 1947 to 1989. Unification into a European Union moved forward after 1950, with some setbacks. Today, most countries west of Russia belong to the NATO military alliance, along with the United States and Canada.
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Gilded Age | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Gilded Age Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900. The term for this period came into use in the 1920s and 1930s and was derived from writer Mark Twain's and Charles Dudley Warner's 1873 novel The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, which satirized an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding. The early half of the Gilded Age roughly coincided with the middle portion of the Victorian era in Britain and the Belle Époque in France. Its beginning in the years after the American Civil War overlaps the Reconstruction Era (which ended in 1877). It was followed in the 1890s by the Progressive Era. The Gilded Age was an era of rapid economic growth, especially in the North and West. As American wages were much higher than those in Europe, especially for skilled workers, the period saw an influx of millions of European immigrants. The rapid expansion of industrialization led to real wage growth of 60% between 1860 and 1890, spread across the ever-increasing labor force. The average annual wage per industrial worker (including men, women, and children) rose from $380 in 1880 to $564 in 1890, a gain of 48%. However, the Gilded Age was also an era of abject poverty and inequality as millions of immigrants—many from impoverished regions—poured into the United States, and the high concentration of wealth became more visible and contentious.Railroads were the major growth industry, with the factory system, mining, and finance increasing in importance. Immigration from Europe and the eastern states led to the rapid growth of the West, based on farming, ranching, and mining. Labor unions became important in the very rapidly growing industrial cities. Two major nationwide depressions—the Panic of 1873 and the Panic of 1893—interrupted growth and caused social and political upheavals. The South after the Civil War remained economically devastated; its economy became increasingly tied to commodities, cotton and tobacco production, which suffered from low prices. With the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877, African-American people in the South were stripped of political power and voting rights and were left economically disadvantaged. The political landscape was notable in that despite some corruption, turnout was very high and national elections saw two evenly matched parties. The dominant issues were cultural (especially regarding prohibition, education, and ethnic or racial groups) and economic (tariffs and money supply). With the rapid growth of cities, political machines increasingly took control of urban politics. In business, powerful nationwide trusts formed in some industries. Unions crusaded for the 8-hour working day and the abolition of child labor; middle class reformers demanded civil service reform, prohibition of liquor and beer, and women's suffrage. Local governments across the North and West built public schools chiefly at the elementary level; public high schools started to emerge. The numerous religious denominations were growing in membership and wealth, with Catholicism becoming the largest denomination. They all expanded their missionary activity to the world arena. Catholics, Lutherans and Episcopalians set up religious schools and the larger denominations set up numerous colleges, hospitals, and charities. Many of the problems faced by society, especially the poor, during the Gilded Age gave rise to attempted reforms in the subsequent Progressive Era.
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Copper | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper 00:02:22 1 Characteristics 00:02:31 1.1 Physical 00:04:38 1.2 Chemical 00:05:17 1.3 Isotopes 00:06:22 1.4 Occurrence 00:07:20 2 Production 00:08:17 2.1 Reserves 00:10:07 2.2 Methods 00:11:41 2.3 Recycling 00:12:45 3 Alloys 00:14:10 4 Compounds 00:14:29 4.1 Binary compounds 00:15:18 4.2 Coordination chemistry 00:17:19 4.3 Organocopper chemistry 00:18:23 4.4 Copper(III) and copper(IV) 00:19:32 5 History 00:19:49 5.1 Prehistoric history 00:19:58 5.1.1 Copper Age 00:21:55 5.1.2 Bronze Age 00:23:11 5.2 Ancient and Post-classical history 00:25:38 5.3 Modern history 00:27:22 6 Applications 00:28:09 6.1 Wire and cable 00:29:36 6.2 Electronics and related devices 00:30:10 6.3 Electric motors 00:30:58 6.4 Architecture 00:32:30 6.5 Antibiofouling applications 00:33:15 6.6 Antimicrobial applications 00:35:01 6.7 Folk medicine 00:35:33 6.7.1 Compression clothing 00:35:59 6.8 Other uses 00:36:13 7 Degradation 00:37:00 8 Biological role 00:39:13 8.1 Dietary needs 00:40:16 8.2 Dietary recommendations 00:43:45 8.3 Deficiency 00:44:42 8.4 Toxicity 00:45:55 8.5 Human exposure 00:46:51 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper is one of the few metals that can occur in nature in a directly usable metallic form (native metals). This led to very early human use in several regions, from c. 8000 BC. Thousands of years later, it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC.In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium (metal of Cyprus), later corrupted to сuprum (Latin), from which the words derived, coper (Old English) and copper, first used around 1530.The commonly encountered compounds are copper(II) salts, which often impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite, malachite, and turquoise, and have been used widely and historically as pigments. Copper used in buildings, usually for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris (or patina). Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic agents, fungicides, and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. In humans, copper is found mainly in the liver, muscle, and bone. The adult body contains between 1.4 and 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight.
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Labor Studies Working Group Symposium: “Labor in a Changing Climate: Climate Change and Labor”
 
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March 2, 2017. PARCC Conversations in Conflict Studies: The Tenth Decade Work, Labor, and Citizenship Project presents Labor in a Changing Climate: Climate Change, Labor and Global Citizenship. Green Jobs? Pipeline struggles? Infrastructure? Recent events have revealed potential overlaps and tensions between climate and labor struggles. The ongoing battle over the Dakota Access Pipeline demonstrates the split within the labor movement on environmental questions; especially related to climate change. This event brings together experts and activists who seek to bridge these tensions between climate and labor activism. What would it mean to create a unified climate-labor movement? How can such a movement respond to the new leadership in the White House? What is the role of policy in creating solutions to climate change that also appeal to working class and other marginalized constituents? How can such a movement create forms of “global citizenship” to address the uneven historical responsibilities for and contemporary environmental impacts of climate change. This event will address these questions and many more. Guest Panelists: Christian Parenti, Global Liberal Studies, New York University; Kate Aronoff, Writing Fellow, In These Times; Howie Hawkins, 2014 Green Party candidate for New York Governor, Member, Teamsters Local 317.
Netherlands | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:04:16
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Netherlands Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland [ˈneːdərlɑnt] ( listen)) is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean (Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba), it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve provinces and borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, the United Kingdom, and Germany. The five largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht (forming the Randstad megalopolis) and Eindhoven (leading the Brabantse Stedenrij). Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General, Cabinet and Supreme Court. The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe and the world's largest outside Asia.'Netherlands' literally means 'lower countries', referring to its low land and flat geography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) above sea level. Most of the areas below sea level are the result of land reclamation beginning in the 16th century, resulting in large areas known as polders that amount to nearly 17% of the country's territory. With a population of 17.25 million living within a total area of roughly 41,500 square kilometres (16,000 sq mi), of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres (13,000 sq mi), the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Nevertheless, it is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products after the United States, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, and intensive agriculture.The Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, and has been administered as a parliamentary constitutional monarchy since 1848, with a unitary structure. A policy of pillarisation historically segregated society and institutions between Catholics, Calvinists and socialists, but Dutch society is today one of the most cosmopolitan in the world. The country has a long history of social tolerance and is generally regarded as a liberal country, having legalised abortion, prostitution, and euthanasia, while maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, and became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001. The Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD, and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. It hosts several intergovernmental organizations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, which is consequently dubbed 'the world's legal capital.' Its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. One of the world's most prosperous countries, the Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, and quality of life. Its strong performance is owed in large part to a generous welfare state that provides universal healthcare, public education and infrastructure, and a range of social benefits. It is also known for its polder model, the country's leading socioeconomic model based on consensus decision-making.
Views: 101 wikipedia tts
Carbon | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Carbon 00:02:35 1 Characteristics 00:06:53 1.1 Allotropes 00:09:43 1.2 Occurrence 00:12:52 1.3 Isotopes 00:17:56 1.4 Formation in stars 00:20:16 1.5 Carbon cycle 00:21:55 2 Compounds 00:22:54 2.1 Organic compounds 00:23:03 2.2 Inorganic compounds 00:25:55 2.3 Organometallic compounds 00:28:51 3 History and etymology 00:31:38 4 Production 00:34:04 4.1 Graphite 00:34:13 4.2 Diamond 00:36:41 5 Applications 00:39:22 5.1 Diamonds 00:42:59 6 Precautions 00:44:52 7 Bonding to carbon 00:47:02 8 See also 00:47:12 9 References Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Carbon (from Latin: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity.Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds, and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life. It is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen.The atoms of carbon can bond together in different ways, termed allotropes of carbon. The best known are graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon. The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form. For example, graphite is opaque and black while diamond is highly transparent. Graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper (hence its name, from the Greek verb "γράφειν" which means "to write"), while diamond is the hardest naturally occurring material known. Graphite is a good electrical conductor while diamond has a low electrical conductivity. Under normal conditions, diamond, carbon nanotubes, and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials. All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form at standard temperature and pressure. They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen. The most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and transition metal carbonyl complexes. The largest sources of inorganic carbon are limestones, dolomites and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, peat, oil, and methane clathrates. Carbon forms a vast number of compounds, more than any other element, with almost ten million compounds described to date, and yet that number is but a fraction of the number of theoretically possible compounds under standard conditions. For this reason, carbon has often been referred to as the "king of the elements".
Views: 12 wikipedia tts
History of Germany | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Germany 00:06:46 1 Prehistory 00:08:00 2 Germanic tribes, 750 BC – 768 AD 00:08:13 2.1 Migration and conquest 00:11:16 2.2 Stem Duchies and Marches 00:12:56 2.3 Frankish Empire 00:16:44 3 Middle Ages 00:16:52 3.1 Foundation of the Holy Roman Empire 00:18:17 3.2 Otto the Great 00:20:54 3.3 Hanseatic League 00:21:36 3.4 Eastward expansion 00:22:10 3.5 Church and state 00:26:25 3.6 Change and reform 00:28:11 3.7 Towns and cities 00:30:00 3.8 Women 00:31:15 3.9 Science and culture 00:32:56 4 Early modern Germany 00:33:11 4.1 Reformation 00:35:56 4.2 Thirty Years War, 1618–1648 00:37:55 4.3 Culture and literacy 00:39:54 4.4 Science 00:40:53 5 1648–1815 00:41:58 5.1 Wars 00:44:14 5.2 Smaller states 00:46:45 5.3 Nobility 00:47:38 5.4 Peasants and rural life 00:50:59 5.5 Bourgeois values spread to rural Germany 00:52:39 5.6 Enlightenment 00:55:39 5.6.1 Women 00:56:50 5.7 French Revolution, 1789–1815 01:00:44 6 1815–1867 01:00:55 6.1 Overview 01:01:53 6.2 German Confederation 01:02:50 6.3 Society and economy 01:02:59 6.3.1 Population 01:04:19 6.3.2 Industrialization 01:05:54 6.3.3 Urbanization 01:07:00 6.3.4 Railways 01:08:46 6.3.5 Newspapers and magazines 01:09:51 6.3.6 Science and culture 01:12:27 6.3.7 Religion 01:15:35 6.4 Politics of restoration and revolution 01:15:45 6.4.1 After Napoleon 01:17:43 6.4.2 1848 01:18:32 6.4.3 1850s 01:19:12 6.4.4 Bismarck takes charge, 1862–1866 01:21:13 6.4.5 North German Federation, 1866–1871 01:21:54 7 German Empire, 1871–1918 01:22:06 7.1 Overview 01:23:53 7.2 Age of Bismarck 01:24:01 7.2.1 The new empire 01:27:33 7.2.2 Classes 01:27:41 7.2.2.1 Aristocracy 01:29:50 7.2.2.2 Middle class 01:30:35 7.2.2.3 Working class 01:31:52 7.2.3 Kulturkampf 01:34:14 7.2.4 Foreign policy 01:37:06 7.3 Wilhelminian Era 01:37:14 7.3.1 Wilhelm II. 01:38:08 7.3.2 Alliances and diplomacy 01:41:05 7.3.3 Economy 01:43:20 7.3.4 Women 01:44:33 7.3.5 Colonies 01:45:24 7.4 World War I 01:45:33 7.4.1 Causes 01:47:13 7.4.2 Western Front 01:48:17 7.4.3 Eastern Front 01:49:13 7.4.4 1918 01:50:01 7.5 Homefront 01:51:17 7.6 Revolution 1918 01:54:40 8 Weimar Republic, 1919–1933 01:54:52 8.1 Overview 01:56:08 8.2 The early years 01:59:27 8.3 Reparations 02:00:47 8.4 Economic collapse and political problems, 1929–1933 02:02:58 8.5 Science and culture 02:04:48 9 Nazi Germany, 1933–1945 02:06:25 9.1 Establishment of the Nazi regime 02:10:20 9.2 Antisemitism and the Holocaust 02:12:30 9.3 Military 02:13:23 9.4 Women 02:15:27 9.5 Foreign policy 02:18:01 9.6 World War II 02:20:34 10 Germany during the Cold War, 1945–1990 02:21:45 10.1 Post-war chaos 02:26:02 10.2 East Germany 02:30:08 10.3 West Germany (Bonn Republic) 02:31:10 10.3.1 Economic miracle 02:32:28 10.3.2 1948 currency reform 02:34:38 10.3.3 Adenauer 02:35:34 10.3.4 Erhard 02:37:26 10.3.5 Grand coalition 02:38:06 10.3.6 Guest workers 02:39:09 10.3.7 Brandt and Ostpolitik 02:40:33 10.3.8 Economic crisis of 1970s 02:43:13 10.4 Kohl 02:43:59 10.5 Reunification 02:45:13 11 Federal Republic of Germany, 1990–present 02:45:24 11.1 Schröder 02:46:21 11.2 Merkel 02:49:01 12 Historiography 02:49:10 12.1 Sonderweg debate 02:50:38 13 See also 02:50:47 14 Notes 02:50:55 14.1 Footnotes Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9630936642269607 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France), which he had conquered. The victory of the Germanic tribes in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (AD 9) prevented annexation by the Roman Empire, although the Roman provinces of Germania Superior and Germania Inferior were established along the Rhine. Following the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Franks conqu ...
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Carbon | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Carbon 00:02:36 1 Characteristics 00:06:54 1.1 Allotropes 00:09:45 1.2 Occurrence 00:12:55 1.3 Isotopes 00:18:00 1.4 Formation in stars 00:20:20 1.5 Carbon cycle 00:21:59 2 Compounds 00:22:58 2.1 Organic compounds 00:23:07 2.2 Inorganic compounds 00:25:59 2.3 Organometallic compounds 00:28:55 3 History and etymology 00:31:43 4 Production 00:34:08 4.1 Graphite 00:34:17 4.2 Diamond 00:36:46 5 Applications 00:39:27 5.1 Diamonds 00:43:05 6 Precautions 00:44:58 7 Bonding to carbon 00:47:09 8 See also 00:47:18 9 References Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Carbon (from Latin: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity.Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds, and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life. It is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen.The atoms of carbon can bond together in different ways, termed allotropes of carbon. The best known are graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon. The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form. For example, graphite is opaque and black while diamond is highly transparent. Graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper (hence its name, from the Greek verb "γράφειν" which means "to write"), while diamond is the hardest naturally occurring material known. Graphite is a good electrical conductor while diamond has a low electrical conductivity. Under normal conditions, diamond, carbon nanotubes, and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials. All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form at standard temperature and pressure. They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen. The most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and transition metal carbonyl complexes. The largest sources of inorganic carbon are limestones, dolomites and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, peat, oil, and methane clathrates. Carbon forms a vast number of compounds, more than any other element, with almost ten million compounds described to date, and yet that number is but a fraction of the number of theoretically possible compounds under standard conditions. For this reason, carbon has often been referred to as the "king of the elements".
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Irish American | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Irish American Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Irish Americans (Irish: Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. About 33 million Americans — 10.5% of the total population — reported Irish ancestry in the 2013 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. This compares with a population of 6.7 million on the island of Ireland. Three million people separately identified as Scotch-Irish, whose ancestors were Ulster Scots and Anglo-Irish Protestant Dissenters who emigrated from Ireland to the United States. However, whether the Scotch-Irish should be considered Irish is disputed.
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History of Mongolia | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of Mongolia Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu (3rd century BCE to 1st century CE), the Xianbei state (c. 93 to 234 CE), the Rouran Khaganate (330-555), the Turkic Khaganate (552-744) and others, ruled the area of present-day Mongolia. The Khitan people, who used a para-Mongolic language, founded a state known as the Liao dynasty (907-1125) in Central Asia and ruled Mongolia and portions of the present-day Russian Far East, northern Korea, and North China. In 1206 Genghis Khan was able to unite and conquer the Mongols, forging them into a fighting force which went on to establish the largest contiguous empire in world history, the Mongol Empire (1206-1368). Buddhism in Mongolia began with the Yuan emperors' conversion to Tibetan Buddhism. After the collapse of the Mongol-led China-based Yuan dynasty in 1368, the Mongols returned to their earlier patterns of internal strife. The Mongols also returned to their old shamanist ways after the collapse of their empire and only in the 16th and 17th centuries did Buddhism reemerge. At the end of the 17th century, present-day Mongolia became part of the area ruled by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty. During the collapse of the Qing in 1911, Mongolia declared independence but had to struggle until 1921 to firmly establish de facto independence and until 1945 to gain international recognition. As a consequence, Mongolia came under strong Soviet influence: in 1924 the Mongolian People's Republic was declared, and Mongolian politics began to follow the same patterns as Soviet politics of the time. After the revolutions of 1989, the Mongolian Revolution of 1990 led to a multi-party system, a new constitution in 1992, and a transition to a market economy.
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