Search results “Cryptosystems based on pairing”

Session W3: Attacks on Elliptic curve and pairing cryptosystems
Session chair: Imbert Laurent
Talk: Breaking pairing-based cryptosystems using ηT pairing over GF(3^97)
Speaker: Takuya Hayashi

Views: 234
ECC2012staff

Views: 3096
Internetwork Security

Pairing based cryptography has resulted in a number of breakthrough results, including some major developments in the area of zero knowledge proof systems. A zero knowledge proof system allows a party to prove that a statement is true without revealing any other information. Zero knowledge proofs are used in everything from identification protocols (allowing a party to prove that he is who he claims to be) and encryption schemes with stronger security properties, to securing protocols against malicious adversaries, and constructing privacy preserving systems. It has been shown that zero knowledge proofs can be constructed from a variety of number theoretic assumptions (or, more generally from any trapdoor permutation); however most of these constructions are complex and inefficient. In '06 Groth, Ostrovsky, an Sahai showed how to construct proof systems based on pairings which have much more structure than traditional constructions; this structure in turn has since been shown to result in proof systems with greater efficiency, stronger security, and more functionality. This talk will describe at a high level how pairings allows us to construct zero knowledge proofs with more structure than traditional tools, and then discuss some of the applications that take advantage of this structure, focusing on applications to privacy and anonymity.

Views: 1167
Microsoft Research

The 3rd Bar-Ilan Winter School on Cryptography: Bilinear Pairings in Cryptography, which was held between February 4th - 7th, 2013.
The event's program: http://crypto.biu.ac.il/winterschool2013/schedule2013.pdf
For All 2013 Winter school Lectures: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLXF_IJaFk-9C4p3b2tK7H9a9axOm3EtjA&feature=mh_lolz
Dept. of Computer Science: http://www.cs.biu.ac.il/
Bar-Ilan University: http://www1.biu.ac.il/indexE.php

Views: 8128
barilanuniversity

John Wagnon discusses the basics and benefits of Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) in this episode of Lightboard Lessons.
Check out this article on DevCentral that explains ECC encryption in more detail: https://devcentral.f5.com/articles/real-cryptography-has-curves-making-the-case-for-ecc-20832

Views: 175402
F5 DevCentral

This a demo on using a delphi library to build pairings-based applications (Id-based crypto-systems, short signatures, attribute-based encryption, searcheable encryption .........)
[email protected]

Views: 136
kamel mohammed

What is ID-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does ID-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? ID-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - ID-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - ID-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ
Identity-based cryptography is a type of public-key cryptography in which a publicly known string representing an individual or organization is used as a public key. The public string could include an email address, domain name, or a physical IP address.
The first implementation of identity-based signatures and an email-address based public-key infrastructure (PKI) was developed by Adi Shamir in 1984, which allowed users to verify digital signatures using only public information such as the user's identifier. Under Shamir's scheme, a trusted third party would deliver the private key to the user after verification of the user's identity, with verification essentially the same as that required for issuing a certificate in a typical PKI.
Shamir similarly proposed identity-based encryption, which appeared particularly attractive since there was no need to acquire an identity's public key prior to encryption. However, he was unable to come up with a concrete solution, and identity-based encryption remained an open problem for many years. The first practical implementations were finally devised by Sakai in 2000, and Boneh and Franklin in 2001. These solutions were based on bilinear pairings. Also in 2001, a solution was developed independently by Clifford Cocks.
Identity-based systems allow any party to generate a public key from a known identity value such as an ASCII string. A trusted third party, called the private key generator (PKG), generates the corresponding private keys. To operate, the PKG first publishes a master public key, and retains the corresponding master private key (referred to as master key). Given the master public key, any party can compute a public key corresponding to the identity ID by combining the master public key with the identity value. To obtain a corresponding private key, the party authorized to use the identity ID contacts the PKG, which uses the master private key to generate the private key for identity ID.
Identity-based systems have a characteristic problem in operation. Suppose Alice and Bob are users of such a system. Since the information needed to find Alice's public key is completely determined by Alice's ID and the master public key, it is not possible to revoke Alice's credentials and issue new credentials without either (a) changing Alice's ID (usually a phone number or an email address which will appear in a corporate directory); or (b) changing the master public key and re-issusing private keys to all users, including Bob.
This limitation may be overcome by including a time component (e.g. the current month) in the identity.

Views: 396
The Audiopedia

When using anonymous networks like Tor or I2P, one problem is always how to prevent spam/DoS attacks when you cannot distinguish one entity from another, and hence cannot limit them without either compromising their anonymity by requiring registration of some kind, or requiring captcha-like challenges which are time consuming to implement and usually only a temporary solution at best. Here I introduce a new kind of authentication system based on homomorphic properties of elliptic curve cryptography and zero knowledge proofs called "Linkable Ring Signatures". It allows one to add their public key to a larger group of existing public keys, called a "ring", and sign using the entire "ring" of keys + private key in such a way that no one can tell which private key has signed the message, but can mathematically verify that it was one private key corresponding to one of the public keys in the ring. On top of that, it allows a verifier that only has access to the public keys in the ring to make sure that for any one [message, ring] pair, a private key has only signed it once - duplicate signatures for the same message are detectable. This allows for limiting interactions from any party holding one of these access keys (to say, one message per minute per key), without the party losing any anonymity as their signature is indistinguishable from any other party in the ring. Furthermore, because ring signatures use a cryptographic component called "zero knowledge proofs", signing reveals zero information about the private key - hence no matter how many signatures are generated, it is impossible to use them to try to forge messages or fingerprint/bruteforce the signer key. The proof of this will be shown in the talk. In this talk I will walk through the cryptographic primitives that make this possible, and show a demo service on Tor/I2P that implements this scheme to make an anti-spam anonymous forum.

Views: 877
Security BSides London

Structure-Preserving Signatures from Type II Pairings by Masayuki Abe, Miyako Ohkubo, Jens Groth, Mehdi Tibouchi. Talk at Crypto 2014.

Views: 143
TheIACR

Eurocrypt 2016. Jens Groth. See http://www.iacr.org/cryptodb/data/paper.php?pubkey=27580

Views: 311
TheIACR

This short video introduces the concept of a lattice, why they are being considered as the basis for the next generation of public key cryptography, and a short walkthrough of a specific encryption algorithm. For a very thorough paper designed to be readable for undergraduates I highly recommend https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/938.pdf.
*One technical note: At 1:30 I claim that lattices are composed only of integers. This is not true. Some lattices only contain integers, but in general, any rational number will do.

Views: 7763
Matthew Dozer

At the SIAM Annual Meeting held in Minneapolis in July, Dr. Kristin Lauter of Microsoft Research discussed Elliptic Curve Cryptography as a mainstream primitive for cryptographic protocols and applications. The talk surveyed elliptic curve cryptography and its applications, including applications of pairing-based cryptography which are built with elliptic curves. Lauter also discussed its applications to privacy of electronic medical records, and implications for secure and private cloud storage and cloud computing.

Views: 1874
Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

Modern day encryption is performed in two different ways. Check out http://YouTube.com/ITFreeTraining or http://itfreetraining.com for more of our always free training videos. Using the same key or using a pair of keys called the public and private keys. This video looks at how these systems work and how they can be used together to perform encryption.
Download the PDF handout
http://itfreetraining.com/Handouts/Ce...
Encryption Types
Encryption is the process of scrambling data so it cannot be read without a decryption key. Encryption prevents data being read by a 3rd party if it is intercepted by a 3rd party. The two encryption methods that are used today are symmetric and public key encryption.
Symmetric Key
Symmetric key encryption uses the same key to encrypt data as decrypt data. This is generally quite fast when compared with public key encryption. In order to protect the data, the key needs to be secured. If a 3rd party was able to gain access to the key, they could decrypt any data that was encrypt with that data. For this reason, a secure channel is required to transfer the key if you need to transfer data between two points. For example, if you encrypted data on a CD and mail it to another party, the key must also be transferred to the second party so that they can decrypt the data. This is often done using e-mail or the telephone. In a lot of cases, sending the data using one method and the key using another method is enough to protect the data as an attacker would need to get both in order to decrypt the data.
Public Key Encryption
This method of encryption uses two keys. One key is used to encrypt data and the other key is used to decrypt data. The advantage of this is that the public key can be downloaded by anyone. Anyone with the public key can encrypt data that can only be decrypted using a private key. This means the public key does not need to be secured. The private key does need to be keep in a safe place. The advantage of using such a system is the private key is not required by the other party to perform encryption. Since the private key does not need to be transferred to the second party there is no risk of the private key being intercepted by a 3rd party. Public Key encryption is slower when compared with symmetric key so it is not always suitable for every application. The math used is complex but to put it simply it uses the modulus or remainder operator. For example, if you wanted to solve X mod 5 = 2, the possible solutions would be 2, 7, 12 and so on. The private key provides additional information which allows the problem to be solved easily. The math is more complex and uses much larger numbers than this but basically public and private key encryption rely on the modulus operator to work.
Combing The Two
There are two reasons you want to combine the two. The first is that often communication will be broken into two steps. Key exchange and data exchange. For key exchange, to protect the key used in data exchange it is often encrypted using public key encryption. Although slower than symmetric key encryption, this method ensures the key cannot accessed by a 3rd party while being transferred. Since the key has been transferred using a secure channel, a symmetric key can be used for data exchange. In some cases, data exchange may be done using public key encryption. If this is the case, often the data exchange will be done using a small key size to reduce the processing time.
The second reason that both may be used is when a symmetric key is used and the key needs to be provided to multiple users. For example, if you are using encryption file system (EFS) this allows multiple users to access the same file, which includes recovery users. In order to make this possible, multiple copies of the same key are stored in the file and protected from being read by encrypting it with the public key of each user that requires access.
References
"Public-key cryptography" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-k...
"Encryption" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encryption

Views: 488478
itfreetraining

Session W3: Attacks on Elliptic curve and pairing cryptosystems
Session chair: Imbert Laurent
Talk: On Fault-based Attacks and Countermeasures for Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems
Speaker: Agustín Domínguez-Oviedo

Views: 190
ECC2012staff

Views: 176
Daksh Chauhan

Much of the research in number theory, like mathematics as a whole, has been inspired by hard problems which are easy to state. A famous example is 'Fermat's Last Theorem'. Starting in the 1970's number theoretic problems have been suggested as the basis for cryptosystems, such as RSA and Diffie-Hellman. In 1985 Koblitz and Miller independently suggested that the discrete logarithm problem on elliptic curves might be more secure than the 'conventional' discrete logarithm on multiplicative groups of finite fields. Since then it has inspired a great deal of research in number theory and geometry in an attempt to understand its security. I'll give a brief historical tour concerning the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem, and the closely connected Weil Pairing algorithm.

Views: 1366
Microsoft Research

The 3rd Bar-Ilan Winter School on Cryptography: Bilinear Pairings in Cryptography, which was held between February 4th - 7th, 2013.
The event's program: http://crypto.biu.ac.il/winterschool2013/schedule2013.pdf
For All 2013 Winter school Lectures: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLXF_IJaFk-9C4p3b2tK7H9a9axOm3EtjA&feature=mh_lolz
Dept. of Computer Science: http://www.cs.biu.ac.il/
Bar-Ilan University: http://www1.biu.ac.il/indexE.php

Views: 6211
barilanuniversity

Speaker: Sanjam Garg (UC Berkeley)
Title: Identity-Based Encryption from the Diffie-Hellman Assumption
Abstract: In this talk, I will describe new constructions of identity-based encryption based on the hardness of the Diffie-Hellman (without using groups with pairings) Problem. Previously, constructions based on this assumption were believed to be impossible. Our construction is based on new techniques that bypass the known impossibility results using garbled circuits that make a non-black-box use of the underlying cryptographic primitives.
(Based on joint work with Nico Döttling.)

Views: 383
TCS+

Public key encryption (PKE) allows parties that had never met in advance to communicate over an unsafe channel. The notion was conceived in the 1970s, followed by the discovery that one could provide formal definitions of security for this and other cryptographic problems, and that such definitions were achievable by assuming the hardness of some computational problem (e.g., factoring large numbers). For PKE, the most basic security definition -- semantic security -- guarantees privacy, namely that it is infeasible to learn anything about the plaintext from its encryption. However, as cryptographic applications grew more sophisticated, this level of security is often not sufficient, since it does not protect against active attacks arising in networked environments. In this talk I will review some of my work aimed at achieving stronger security notions for public key encryption, including protections against adaptive corruptions, man-in-the-middle attacks (non-malleability), chosen ciphertext security, and, if time allows, tampering attacks. The emphasis of this line of work is on achieving the stronger notion from as general an assumption as possible (e.g., directly from semantically secure PKE), as well as achieving a black box construction, namely using the underlying scheme as a subroutine, without assuming it has any special structure or algebraic properties. This allows for more efficient cryptosystems that can be instantiated with a larger set of assumptions. Based on several joint works with different coauthors. The main part of the talk will be based on joint works with Seung Geol Choi, Dana Dachman-Soled, and Hoeteck Wee.

Views: 89
Microsoft Research

The 3rd Bar-Ilan Winter School on Cryptography: Bilinear Pairings in Cryptography, which was held between February 4th - 7th, 2013.
The event's program: http://crypto.biu.ac.il/winterschool2013/schedule2013.pdf
For All 2013 Winter school Lectures: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLXF_IJaFk-9C4p3b2tK7H9a9axOm3EtjA&feature=mh_lolz
Dept. of Computer Science: http://www.cs.biu.ac.il/
Bar-Ilan University: http://www1.biu.ac.il/indexE.php

Views: 2603
barilanuniversity

Most modern cryptography, and public-key crypto in particular, is based on mathematical problems that are conjectured to be infeasible (e.g., factoring large integers). Unfortunately, standard public-key techniques are often too inefficient to be employed in many environments; moreover, all commonly used schemes can in principle be broken by quantum computers. This talk will review my recent work on developing new mathematical foundations for cryptography, using geometric objects called lattices. Compared to more conventional proposals, lattice-based schemes offer a host of potential advantages: they are simple and highly parallelizable, they can be proved secure under mild worst-case hardness assumptions, and they remain unbroken by quantum algorithms. Due to the entirely different underlying mathematics, however, realizing even the most basic cryptographic notions has been a major challenge. Surprisingly, I will show that lattice-based schemes are also remarkably flexible and expressive, and that many important cryptographic goals can be achieved --- sometimes even more simply and efficiently than with conventional approaches. Some of our schemes provide interesting twists on old and cherished cryptographic notions, while others introduce entirely new concepts altogether.

Views: 2828
Microsoft Research

Christophe Arene, *Tanja Lange, Michael Naehrig, Christophe Ritzenthaler
*Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
Technische Universiteit Eindhoven
P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven
Netherlands
Email: [email protected]
Manuscript number: JNT-D-09-00332R1

Views: 1860
JournalNumberTheory

Optimized Identity-Based Encryption from Bilinear Pairing for Lightweight Devices
IEEE PROJECTS 2017-2018
Call Us: +91-7806844441,9994232214
Mail Us: [email protected]
Website: http://www.ieeeproject.net
: http://www.projectsieee.com
: http://www.ieee-projects-chennai.com
: http://www.24chennai.com
WhatsApp : +91-7806844441
Chat Online: https://goo.gl/p42cQt
Support Including Packages
=======================
* Complete Source Code
* Complete Documentation
* Complete Presentation Slides
* Flow Diagram
* Database File
* Screenshots
* Execution Procedure
* Readme File
* Video Tutorials
* Supporting Softwares
Support Specialization
=======================
* 24/7 Support
* Ticketing System
* Voice Conference
* Video On Demand
* Remote Connectivity
* Document Customization
* Live Chat Support

Views: 170
IEEE PROJECTS CHENNAI

2009 NIMS International Workshop on Mathematical Cryptology
Optimizations for elliptic curve and pairing-based cryptography with the application to signatures for networking coding II/ 2009-06-17

Views: 33
Mathnet Korea

Gagner Technologies offer this project.This project has five modules. This project based on IEEE transactions 2012. Contact: Gagner Technologies, #7 police quarters Road(Behnid Bus T.Nagar Bus Satnd), T.Nagar, Chennai-17,web:www.gagner.in mail:[email protected] call to: 9092820515

Views: 724
Prabakaran Murugesan

Over the past decade the cryptographic research community has made impressive progress in developing new cryptographic protocols. This work has advanced our understanding of basic technologies such as public key encryption, key agreement, and digital signatures. Moreover, it has given us entirely new paradigms for securing data, such as Attribute Based Encryption, anonymous credentials and techniques for computing on encrypted data. Despite these advances, only a trickle of new cryptographic technology has filtered down to the systems community in the form of useable cryptographic implementations. Even supported prototype research implementations are few and far between. This is a major loss for researchers, to say nothing of industry and the open source community. In this talk we introduce Charm, an extensible Python-based framework for rapidly prototyping cryptographic systems. Charm was designed from the ground up to support the development of advanced cryptographic schemes. It includes support for multiple cryptographic settings, an extensive library of re-usable code, along with the infrastructure necessary to quickly implement interactive protocols. Our framework also provides a series of specialized tools that enable different cryptosystems to interoperate. This paper describes Charm and the various capabilities provided through our modular architecture. Through several examples, we show that our approach produces a potential order of magnitude decrease in code size compared to standard C implementations, while inducing an acceptable performance impact.

Views: 216
Microsoft Research

Pairings on elliptic curves have allowed the development of new cryptographic protocols like anonymous certificates, multicanal broadcasting... For an elliptic curve, or more generally a Jacobian, computing the pairing uses an algorithm due to Miller that explicitly compute some functions associated to divisors on the curve. In this talk, we show how one can use Riemann relations on the Theta model to compute the Tate and Weil pairings on abelian varieties that are not necessarily Jacobians. We show how to generalize this to pairings reducing the loop length of Miller's algorithm (ate, twisted ate, optimal ate), and also how to compute symmetric pairings on Kummer varieties. While elaborated for general abelian varieties, this algorithm is surprisingly fast in low dimension, and is almost competitive with the fastest known pairings computation on elliptic curves. This is a joint work with David Lubicz.

Views: 161
Microsoft Research

Steven D. Galbraith and Christophe Petit and Barak Shani and Yan Bo Ti. Talk at Asiacrypt 2016. See http://www.iacr.org/cryptodb/data/paper.php?pubkey=27886

Views: 535
TheIACR

Views: 1131
barilanuniversity

Views: 321
barilanuniversity

My talk will mainly be on new developments in generalized identity-based cryptography. Identity-based cryptography is relatively new technology, less than a decade old, in which a message can be encrypted using any string as a public key. More generally, we could imagine encrypting a message under a policy which specifies under what conditions someone is allowed to read it. I will give a summary and some specific examples of my work in this area. Additionally, I will outline some of my work on fast and secure cryptographic implementations

Views: 342
Microsoft Research

Kidner can help Kidney Paired Exchange programs to detect life-saving opportunities & improve access to kidney transplants. #blockchain #HealthIT - Join us now!
WEBSITE : www.kidner-project.com
PAPER : "KIDNER – A WORLDWIDE DECENTRALISED MATCHING SYSTEM FOR KIDNEY TRANSPLANTS"
http://journals.ukzn.ac.za/index.php/JISfTeH/article/view/287/788
Kidner is a platform that helps people finding match for kidney exchange. It's a global database, Blockchain-based, secured with cryptographic tools. Today, when someone is willing to give a kidney to a sick parent as an act of generosity, it’s not always a fit from a medical point of view, but what if someone else is in the exact same situation and they can swap kidneys? Numbers have shown that it is better to have a transplant from a living donor. Unfortunately, it is not always easy to find both will & compatibility. So with Kidner, if you have found the “will” we will help with “compatibility” part. Thanks to the Blockchain, you join a global and secure database of people exactly in the same situation as yours without border issues. You increase the chance to find a proper match while being fully protected. Privacy and confidentiality are preserved thanks to encryption tools, and certificates - which you need to join the platform - are issued by a Doctor. Everything else is decentralized and happens in real time. When a match is found, you are notified by Kidner and your Doctor receives all the information needed to arrange the operation logistics.
If you want to help on this project, feel free to contact us on twitter : @KidnerProject

Views: 484
Kidner Project

Views: 4729
barilanuniversity

Doubly-efficient zkSNARKs without trusted setup
Riad S. Wahby (Stanford)
Presented at the
2018 IEEE Symposium on Security & Privacy
May 21–23, 2018
San Francisco, CA
http://www.ieee-security.org/TC/SP2018/
ABSTRACT
We present a zero-knowledge argument for NP with low communication complexity, low concrete cost for both the prover and the verifier, and no trusted setup, based on standard cryptographic assumptions. Communication is proportional to d log G (for d the depth and G the width of the verifying circuit) plus the square root of the witness size. When applied to batched or data-parallel statements, the prover's runtime is linear and the verifier's is sub-linear in the verifying circuit size, both with good constants. In addition, witness-related communication can be reduced, at the cost of increased verifier runtime, by leveraging a new commitment scheme for multilinear polynomials, which may be of independent interest. These properties represent a new point in the tradeoffs among setup, complexity assumptions, proof size, and computational cost. We apply the Fiat-Shamir heuristic to this argument to produce a zero-knowledge succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge (zkSNARK) in the random oracle model, based on the discrete log assumption, which we call Hyrax. We implement Hyrax and evaluate it against five state-of-the-art baseline systems. Our evaluation shows that, even for modest problem sizes, Hyrax gives smaller proofs than all but the most computationally costly baseline, and that its prover and verifier are each faster than three of the five baselines.

Views: 566
IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy

Converting Cryptographic Schemes from Symmetric to Asymmetric Bilinear Groups by Masayuki Abe, Miyako Ohkubo, Jens Groth, Takeya Tango. Talk at Crypto 2014.

Views: 365
TheIACR

Paper by Michel Abdalla and Romain Gay and Mariana Raykova and Hoeteck Wee presented at Eurocrypt 2017. See https://www.iacr.org/cryptodb/data/paper.php?pubkey=27994

Views: 172
TheIACR

One of the more elegant and counterintuitive ideas in modern cryptography is the notion of a zero-knowledge proof (ZNP). A ZNP allows one party (the prover) to prove to another (the verifier) that they know a secret without revealing any information about the secret itself.It’s a totally wild idea that has deep implications for online security.
Credits: Talking: Geoffrey Challen (Assistant Professor, Computer Science and Engineering, University at Buffalo). Producing: Greg Bunyea (Undergraduate, Computer Science and Engineering, University at Buffalo).
Part of the https://www.internet-class.org online internet course. A blue Systems Research Group (https://blue.cse.buffalo.edu) production.

Views: 14274
internet-class

Title: Lattice-Based Cryptography
Speaker: Phong Nguyen (Inria and CNRS/JFLI and the University of Tokyo)
2016 Post-Quantum Cryptography Winter School
https://pqcrypto2016.jp/winter/

Views: 1523
PQCrypto 2016

Optimized Identity Based Encryption from Bilinear Pairing for Lightweight Devices
IEEE PROJECTS 2017-2018
Call Us: +91-7806844441,9994232214
Mail Us: [email protected]
Website: http://www.ieeeproject.net
: http://www.projectsieee.com
: http://www.ieee-projects-chennai.com
: http://www.24chennai.com
WhatsApp : +91-7806844441
Chat Online: https://goo.gl/p42cQt
Support Including Packages
=======================
* Complete Source Code
* Complete Documentation
* Complete Presentation Slides
* Flow Diagram
* Database File
* Screenshots
* Execution Procedure
* Readme File
* Video Tutorials
* Supporting Softwares
Support Specialization
=======================
* 24/7 Support
* Ticketing System
* Voice Conference
* Video On Demand
* Remote Connectivity
* Document Customization
* Live Chat Support

Views: 56
IEEE PROJECTS CHENNAI

Session T2: Hardware Implementations
Session chair: Francisco Rodríguez-Henríquez
Talk: Faster pairing hardware accelerators
Speaker: Junfeng Fan

Views: 65
ECC2012staff

What is PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys that may be disseminated widely paired with private keys which are known only to the owner. There are two functions that can be achieved: using a public key to authenticate that a message originated with a holder of the paired private key; or encrypting a message with a public key to ensure that only the holder of the paired private key can decrypt it.
In a public-key encryption system, any person can encrypt a message using the public key of the receiver, but such a message can be decrypted only with the receiver's private key. For this to work it must be computationally easy for a user to generate a public and private key-pair to be used for encryption and decryption. The strength of a public-key cryptography system relies on the degree of difficulty (computational impracticality) for a properly generated private key to be determined from its corresponding public key. Security then depends only on keeping the private key private, and the public key may be published without compromising security.
Public-key cryptography systems often rely on cryptographic algorithms based on mathematical problems that currently admit no efficient solution—particularly those inherent in certain integer factorization, discrete logarithm, and elliptic curve relationships. Public key algorithms, unlike symmetric key algorithms, do not require a secure channel for the initial exchange of one (or more) secret keys between the parties.
Because of the computational complexity of asymmetric encryption, it is usually used only for small blocks of data, typically the transfer of a symmetric encryption key (e.g. a session key). This symmetric key is then used to encrypt the rest of the potentially long message sequence. The symmetric encryption/decryption is based on simpler algorithms and is much faster.
Message authentication involves hashing the message to produce a "digest," and encrypting the digest with the private key to produce a digital signature. Thereafter anyone can verify this signature by (1) computing the hash of the message, (2) decrypting the signature with the signer's public key, and (3) comparing the computed digest with the decrypted digest. Equality between the digests confirms the message is unmodified since it was signed, and that the signer, and no one else, intentionally performed the signature operation — presuming the signer's private key has remained secret. The security of such procedure depends on a hash algorithm of such quality that it is computationally impossible to alter or find a substitute message that produces the same digest - but studies have shown that even with the MD5 and SHA-1 algorithms, producing an altered or substitute message is not impossible. The current hashing standard for encryption is SHA-2. The message itself can also be used in place of the digest.
Public-key algorithms are fundamental security ingredients in cryptosystems, applications and protocols. They underpin various Internet standards, such as Transport Layer Security (TLS), S/MIME, PGP, and GPG. Some public key algorithms provide key distribution and secrecy (e.g., Diffie–Hellman key exchange), some provide digital signatures (e.g., Digital Signature Algorithm), and some provide both (e.g., RSA).
Public-key cryptography finds application in, among others, the information technology security discipline, information security. Information security (IS) is concerned with all aspects of protecting electronic information assets against security threats. Public-key cryptography is used as a method of assuring the confidentiality, authenticity and non-repudiability of electronic communications and data storage.

Views: 836
The Audiopedia

We consider what constitutes identities in cryptography. Typical examples include your name and your social-security number, or your fingerprint/iris-scan, or your address, or your (non-revoked) public-key coming from some trusted public-key infrastructure. In many situations, however, where you are defines your identity. For example, we know the role of a bank-teller behind a bullet-proof bank window not because she shows us her credentials but by merely knowing her location. In this paper, we initiate the study of cryptographic protocols where the identity (or other credentials and inputs) of a party are derived from its geographic location. We explore the possibility of Position

Views: 183
Microsoft Research

This will be the fourth of six cryptography primer sessions exploring the basics of modern cryptography. In this session, we’ll explore primality testing, elliptic curve cryptosystems, and lattice-based cryptosystems. Subsequent sessions (on alternating Fridays) are expected to include the following topics. Depending on the interests of the participants, other topics may be included or substituted. Attacks, vulnerabilities, and practical considerations Applications including zero-knowledge, secret sharing, homomorphic encryption, and election protocols.

Views: 416
Microsoft Research

A talk given at the University of Waterloo on July 12th, 2016. The intended audience was mathematics students without necessarily any prior background in cryptography or elliptic curves.
Apologies for the poor audio quality. Use subtitles if you can't hear.

Views: 2301
David Urbanik

Here!

Here!

Here!

Good headlines for dating sites examples

© 2019 Wollongong university coal mining

FiNMAX, instead of trying out new concepts in binary trading, has taken all the accomplished products and services that are prevalent in the markets and added them to their brokerage account. As a result, what you get is a reasonably competent binary options account that cover all key aspects of binary options trading in an affordable package. Of course, not all is well with FiNMAX, as the broker has failed to address some of the pressing concerns that are relevant to its clients. In our FiNMAX binary options review, we give you a relatively transparent outline of what makes FiNMAX a good choice of a brokerage, and what are all the negative aspects that you should contemplate before opening an account. Under first impressions, it is clear that FiNMAX has clearly understood all the primary requirements of traders. In fact, FiNMAX tries hard to display itself as a genuine binary options trading company, despite its humble beginnings in 2016. It was certainly refreshing to see that FiNMAX is located in the UK, with additional offices in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Australia, Canada, and Italy. The professionally designed website also leaves no stones unturned as to the commitment of the company towards ensuring complete transparency in its products and services.