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RC Basics - Understanding Electronic Speed Controllers (ESC)
 
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Consider supporting the channel by visiting www.patreon.com/painless360 To see more videos on RC power systems visit - https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLYsWjANuAm4pIU07ta7glYIn-EBCof_4r To view the videos in the ‘Introduction to RC’ playlist visit - https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLYsWjANuAm4oWuE5ZDX4TAiHBv2i0Xl4m To view the video that covers shows throttle calibration routine - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOplk52R4no To view the video that covers how I flashed SimonK firmware - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kA2dBD9jSVo In this video we cover the how an ESC works and what the main jobs of it are inside your model. We cover the standard settings that you will encounter in traditional firmwares, things like brake, advance, voltage cut-off, direction and timing. We cover a few of the standard firmware types like SimonK and BLHeli. We talk about what OneShot is. We then finish by discussing the various types of battery Eliminator Circuits (BEC/UBEC) found in ESCs (Linear, Switching/switched, Optio/Opto). You can see the ESC calibration video here – In this video you can find – - Introduction (0:02) - How do ESCs work? (2:29) - Firmware types and OneShot (9:18) - Why do we need to calibrate the throttle? (14:32) - Types of BEC (1605) - Summary (19:03) Thanks for watching please LIKE and SUBSCRIBE. Happy flying!
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Electrolytic capacitor | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrolytic_capacitor 00:01:58 1 General Information 00:02:07 1.1 Electrolytic capacitors family tree 00:02:40 1.2 Charge principle 00:03:25 1.3 Basic materials and construction 00:06:10 1.4 Capacitance and volumetric efficiency 00:08:05 1.5 Basic construction of non-solid aluminum electrolytic capacitors 00:08:21 1.6 Basic construction of solid tantalum electrolytic capacitors 00:08:39 2 Types and features of electrolytic capacitors 00:08:50 2.1 Comparison of electrolytic capacitor types 00:10:32 2.2 Comparison of electrical parameters 00:11:29 2.3 Styles of aluminum and tantalum electrolytic capacitors 00:12:27 3 History 00:12:36 3.1 Origin 00:13:51 3.2 "Wet" aluminum capacitor 00:15:24 3.3 "Dry" aluminum capacitor 00:17:49 3.4 Tantalum capacitors 00:20:24 3.5 Solid electrolytes 00:23:22 3.6 Niobium capacitors 00:24:28 3.7 Water based electrolytes 00:25:50 4 Electrical characteristics 00:26:00 4.1 Series-equivalent circuit 00:27:01 4.2 Capacitance, standard values and tolerances 00:30:18 4.3 Rated and category voltage 00:32:02 4.4 Surge Voltage 00:33:00 4.5 Transient voltage 00:34:01 4.6 Reverse voltage 00:36:25 4.7 Impedance 00:40:30 4.8 ESR and dissipation factor tan δ 00:42:30 4.9 Ripple current 00:46:21 4.10 Current surge, peak or pulse current 00:47:24 4.11 Leakage current 00:51:08 4.12 Dielectric absorption (soakage) 00:52:20 5 Operational characteristics 00:52:30 5.1 Reliability (failure rate) 00:58:25 5.2 Lifetime 01:02:34 5.3 Failure modes, self-healing mechanism and application rules 01:03:05 5.4 Performance after storage 01:05:13 6 Additional information 01:05:22 6.1 Capacitor symbols 01:05:34 6.2 Parallel connection 01:06:01 6.3 Series connection 01:06:58 6.4 Polarity marking 01:07:16 6.5 Imprinted markings 01:09:06 6.6 Standardization 01:09:29 6.7 Market 01:09:58 6.8 Manufacturers and products 01:10:38 7 See also 01:10:55 8 References 01:11:09 2008, "X" 01:11:23 2010, "B" 01:11:36 2012, "D" 01:11:48 2014 etc. Month codes are: "1" to "9" 01:12:06 October, "N" 01:12:18 December. "X5" is then "2009, May"For very small capacitors no marking is possible. Here only the traceability of the manufacturers can ensure the identification of a type. 01:12:36 Standardization 01:14:46 Market 01:15:23 Manufacturers and products 01:15:35 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8207127267110279 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= An electrolytic capacitor (abbreviated e-cap) is a polarized capacitor whose anode or positive plate is made of a metal that forms an insulating oxide layer through anodization. This oxide layer acts as the dielectric of the capacitor. A solid, liquid, or gel electrolyte covers the surface of this oxide layer, serving as the (cathode) or negative plate of the capacitor. Due to their very thin dielectric oxide layer and enlarged anode surface, electrolytic capacitors have a much higher capacitance-voltage (CV) product per unit volume than ceramic capacitors or film capacitors, and so can have large capacitance values. There are three families of electrolytic capacitor: aluminum electrolytic capacitors, tantalum electrolytic capacitors, and niobium electrolytic capacitors. The large capacitance of electrolytic capacitors makes them particularly suitable for passing or bypassing low-frequency signals, and for storing large amounts of energy. They are widely used for decoupling or noise filtering in power supplies and DC link circuits for variable-frequency drives, for coupling signals between amplifier stages, and storing energy as in a flashlamp. Electrolytic capacitors are polarized components due to their asymmetrical construction, and must be operated with a higher voltage (ie, more positive) on the anode than on the cathode at all times. For this reason the anode terminal is marked with a plus sign and the cathode with a minus sign. Apply ...
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Aluminum electrolytic capacitor | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminum_electrolytic_capacitor 00:03:03 1 Basic information 00:03:13 1.1 Oxide layer 00:06:00 1.2 Construction of non-solid aluminum electrolytic capacitors 00:09:15 1.3 Comparison of non-solid and solid types 00:13:09 2 Materials 00:13:19 2.1 Anode 00:18:34 2.2 Cathode 00:20:02 2.3 Electrolyte 00:23:25 2.4 Separator 00:24:31 2.5 Encapsulation 00:25:47 2.6 Sealing 00:26:40 3 Production 00:28:06 4 Styles 00:28:59 5 History 00:38:37 6 Electrical parameters 00:39:45 6.1 Capacitance standard values and tolerances 00:42:50 6.2 Rated and category voltage 00:44:14 6.3 Surge voltage 00:45:13 6.4 Transient voltage 00:46:47 6.5 Reverse voltage 00:49:54 6.6 Impedance 00:55:54 6.7 ESR and dissipation factor tan δ 00:58:50 6.8 Ripple current 01:04:42 6.9 Charge/discharge stability 01:06:48 6.10 Current surge, peak or pulse current 01:06:54 6.11 Leakage current 01:11:29 6.12 Dielectric absorption (soakage) 01:12:49 7 Reliability, lifetime and failure modes 01:13:01 7.1 Reliability (failure rate) 01:17:45 7.2 Lifetime, service life 01:26:07 7.3 Failure modes 01:27:49 7.4 Capacitor behavior after storage or disuse 01:32:15 8 Additional information 01:32:26 8.1 Capacitor symbols 01:32:35 8.2 Parallel connection 01:33:07 8.3 Series connection 01:34:10 8.4 Imprinted markings 01:36:08 8.5 Polarity marking 01:36:52 8.6 Standardization 01:37:11 9 Applications and market 01:37:26 9.1 Applications 01:37:41 9.2 Advantages and disadvantages 01:37:55 9.3 Market 01:38:09 9.4 Manufacturers and products 01:38:28 10 References 01:38:35 November, "D" 01:38:53 Polarity marking 01:40:35 Standardization 01:42:35 Applications and market 01:42:45 Applications 01:43:45 Advantages and disadvantages 01:44:51 Market Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8971417236899385 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are polarized electrolytic capacitors whose anode electrode (+) is made of a pure aluminum foil with an etched surface. The aluminum forms a very thin insulating layer of aluminium oxide by anodization that acts as the dielectric of the capacitor. A non-solid electrolyte covers the rough surface of the oxide layer, serving in principle as the second electrode (cathode) (-) of the capacitor. A second aluminum foil called “cathode foil” contacts the electrolyte and serves as the electrical connection to the negative terminal of the capacitor. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are divided into three subfamilies by the type of electrolyte: non-solid (liquid, wet) aluminum electrolytic capacitors, solid manganese dioxide aluminum electrolytic capacitors, and solid polymer aluminium electrolytic capacitors.Aluminum electrolytic capacitors with non-solid electrolyte are the most inexpensive type and also those with widest range of sizes, capacitance and voltage values. They are made with capacitance values from 0.1 µF up to 2,700,000 µF (2.7 F), and rated voltages values from 4 V up to 630 V. The liquid electrolyte provides oxygen for re-forming or self-healing of the dielectric oxide layer. However, it can evaporate through a temperature-dependent drying-out process, which causes electrical parameters to drift, limiting the service life time of the capacitors. Due to their relatively high capacitance values aluminum electrolytic capacitors have low impedance values even at lower frequencies like mains frequency. They are typically used in power supplies, switched-mode power supplies and DC-DC converters for smoothing and buffering rectified DC voltages in many electronic devices as well as in industrial power supplies and frequency converters as DC link capacitors for drives, inverters for photovoltaic, and converters in wind power plants. Special types are used for energy storage, for example in photoflash or strobe applications or for frequency coupling in audio applications. ...
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