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Different gold mining methods
 
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Gold Panning - http://goldgold.com In this video Dave Mack goes over and demonstrates the many gold mining methods used by modern gold prospectors. Methods include gold panning, sniping and sluicing. Also covered are highbanking, metal detecting, dry washing and dredging for gold. Dave has taught hundreds of people how to find gold over his long career in the gold mining industry. Dave is the founder of The New 49'ers Prospecting Association. Visit our channel: http://www.youtube.com/user/new49ersvideo Subscribe to our channel: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=new49ersvideo How to Find Gold - Learn gold prospecting techniques online with almost 3 hours of video instruction by Dave McCracken - http://goldgold.com/extreme-prospector-prospecting-videos About The New 49'ers - The New 49'ers Gold Prospecting Association is the premier gold prospecting club in the USA. Located in Happy Camp California, the club offers 60+ miles of gold claims where members can prospect for gold. For more information visit: http://www.goldgold.com/information-about-the-club http://youtu.be/o6qs-6IvigQ
Views: 19317 new49ersvideo
Gold Puddler.
 
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Ongoing project to build old fashioned gold puddler without the horses😍
Views: 34 Bob Oldenhof
Gold Panning Victoria
 
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Gold panning in the Golden Triangle
Views: 20610 TheH0ward
Channel Diversion before gravel Mining starts in the Upper River Cinca
 
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This video shows how water is diverted to a new channel created on purpose to dry part of the natural channel to start gravel mining in the Upper River Cinca. In-channel gravel mining is permitted in this case because river is damaging some local infrastructures (rip-rap) near a camping site. Changes on sediment transport, bed morphology and macroinvertebrate drift associated to mining are being assessed at multiple temporal and spatial scales.
Views: 132 Damià Vericat
Iron-process iron ore mining blasting process
 
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Kiruna:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html Professional:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html How iron is made:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html Mining:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html After additional processing of the taconite concentrate in which most of the water is removed, the taconite concentrate, which now contains about 65% iron, needs to be converted or made into a product that can be transported by railroad and boat vessel to the steel mills. This final product is referred to as a "taconite pellet," which is produced in the agglomerator or pelletizing phase. A clay binder is added to the moist taconite concentrate, which is then conveyed to large rotating drums where it is rolled into "green balls." Some of the lessees also add limestone to the taconite concentrate at this point, which is a fluxing agent. These marble-sized green balls are then heated in furnaces or kilns to approximately 2,400 degrees Fahrenheit, which significantly hardens them into taconite pellets thereby allowing them to endure transport to the steel mills by railroad and boat vessel with minimum breakage. The taconite pellets are then cooled and stockpiled until they are ready for transport. [To the extent pig iron or steel can be made on-site or near the taconite facility, the heated taconite pellets may proceed directly to the steelmaking phase.] Historically, iron was produced by the hot-blast method, or later, the anthracite furnace. Either way, the fundamental activity in iron making involved a worker stirring small batches of pig iron and cinder until the iron separated from the slag. Called "puddling," this was highly skilled work, but was also hot, strenuous, and dangerous. It required a lot of experience as well as a hearty constitution. Puddlers were proud, independent, and highly paid. Puddlers founded the first trade union in the iron and steel industry, the Sons of Vulcan, in Pittsburgh in . In , this union merged with three other labor organizations to form the Amalgamated As
Views: 318 Ishara Jessie
Steelmaking "The Drama of Steel" Part 2 of 3 (1946) Bureau of Mines Iron Mine to Steel Mill
 
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"This documentary film starts with the history of the steelmaking process, explaining the operation of the blast furnace and the open hearth furnace. It goes on to cover the mining of ore and limestone, transportation and coking of coal, open hearth and rolling mill operations, and plating and finishing. In addition, it also illustrates many of the applications of steel mill products. The film is partly animated." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steelmaking Steelmaking is the second step in producing steel from iron ore. In this stage, impurities such as sulfur, phosphorus, and excess carbon are removed from the raw iron, and alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, chromium and vanadium are added to produce the exact steel required. Older processes The earliest means of producing steel was in a bloomery. Early modern methods of producing steel were often labour-intensive and highly skilled arts... An important aspect of the industrial revolution was the development of large-scale methods of producing forgeable metal (bar iron or steel). The puddling furnace was initially a means of producing wrought iron, but was later applied to steel production. The real revolution in steelmaking only began at the end of the 1850s. The Bessemer process was the first successful method of steelmaking in quantity, followed by the open hearth furnace. Modern processes Modern steelmaking processes are broken into two categories: primary and secondary steelmaking. Primary steelmaking uses mostly new iron as the feedstock, usually from a blast furnace. Secondary steelmaking uses scrap steel as the primary raw material. Gases created during the production of steel can be used as a source of power. Primary steelmaking Basic oxygen steelmaking is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbon-rich molten pig iron is made into steel. Blowing oxygen through molten pig iron lowers the carbon content of the alloy and changes it into low-carbon steel. The process is known as basic due to the pH of the refractories—calcium oxide and magnesium oxide—that line the vessel to withstand the high temperature of molten metal. The process was developed in 1948 by Robert Durrer and commercialized in 1952--1953 by Austrian VOEST and ÖAMG. The LD converter, named after the Austrian towns Linz and Donawitz (a district of Leoben) is a refined version of the Bessemer converter where blowing of air is replaced with blowing oxygen. It reduced capital cost of the plants, time of smelting, and increased labor productivity. Between 1920 and 2000, labor requirements in the industry decreased by a factor of 1,000, from more than 3 worker-hours per tonne to just 0.003. The vast majority of steel manufactured in the world is produced using the basic oxygen furnace; in 2000, it accounted for 60% of global steel output. Modern furnaces will take a charge of iron of up to 350 tons and convert it into steel in less than 40 minutes, compared to 10--12 hours in an open hearth furnace. Secondary steelmaking Secondary steelmaking is most commonly performed in an electric arc furnace. HIsarna steelmaking The HIsarna steelmaking process is a process for primary steelmaking in which iron ore is processed almost directly into steel. The process is based around a new type of blast furnace called a Cyclone Converter Furnace, which makes it possible to skip the process of manufacturing pig iron pellets that is necessary for the basic oxygen steelmaking process. Without the necessity for this preparatory step the HIsarna process is more energy-efficient and has a lower carbon footprint than traditional steelmaking processes...
Views: 19 Old Movies Reborn
How to See Clearly Through Your Welding Helmet - Kevin Caron
 
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Artist Kevin Caron answers a new welder's question about how to use a welding helmet's tint and other controls.
Views: 228025 Kevin Caron, Artist
Creek Drainage 12 2 12
 
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Creek drainage 12-2-12 after digging it out and restoring old infrastructure. This is almost the same amount that overflowed this waterway two years ago but our improvements handled the flow very nicely!
Views: 83 informed
Outdoor Nevada S3 Ep5 | Desert Treasures
 
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From a hidden cave to a disguised mine, we see it all. Learn more: https://www.vegaspbs.org/outdoor-nevada/
Views: 59 Vegas PBS
Iron-process steps of iron from ore to automobile
 
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IMA: The Mining:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/quarry/iron-crusher.html Iron ore mining exploration glossary:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/quarry/iron-crusher.html How A Blast Furnace:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/quarry/iron-crusher.html SUNIL STEEL:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/quarry/iron-crusher.html Smelting:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/quarry/iron-crusher.html How iron is made:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/quarry/iron-crusher.html The hot metal output from the Blast furnace is either directly fed in to the Basic Oxygen Furnace or used for producing 'pig iron'. In the Old World, the first metals smelted were tin and lead. The earliest known cast lead beads were found in the Çatal Höyük site in Anatolia (Turkey), and dated from about  BC, but the metal may have been known earlier. Flux and slag can provide a secondary service after the reduction step isplete: They provide a molten cover on the purified metal, preventing it froming into contact with oxygen while it is still hot enough to oxidise readily. All of the raw materials are stored in an ore field and transferred to the stockhouse before charging. Once these materials are charged into the furnace top, they go through numerous chemical and physical reactions while descending to the bottom of the furnace. Puddlers founded the first trade union in the iron and steel industry, the Sons of Vulcan, in Pittsburgh in . In , this union merged with three other labor organizations to form the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers. This was the union that Andrew Carnegie defeated in the Homestead Strike of , leaving the union in shambles and the industry essentially unorganized until the s. In the case of carbonates and sulfides, a process called "roasting" drives off the unwanted carbon or sulfur, leaving an oxide, which can be directly reduced. Roasting is usually carried out in an oxidizing environment. A few practical examples: In the Americas, pre-Inca civilizations of the central Andes in Peru had mastered the smelting of copper and silver at least six centuries before the first Europeans arrived in the 16th century.[1] Around the
Views: 129 Ishara Jessie
Fixing a Clogged Defrost Drain Check Valve in a Whirlpool-built Bottom-Mount Refrigerator
 
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For more tech advice on your repair, or to order parts, visit http://Appliantology.org Become a certified appliance repair technician at our online school, the Samurai Tech Academy: http://MasterSamuraiTech.com The newer model Whirlpool, Kitchenaid, Amana,Jenn-Air, and Maytag bottom-mount refrigerators are prone to clogged condensate drain problems from a rubber check valve on the drain tube that can get clogged up with gookus. In this exciting episode of Appliantology TV, Samurai Appliance Repair Man takes you deep into the belly of the beast, revealing the location of this troublesome check valve and shows you how to fix it for good. NOTE: Whirlpool has since come out with a new P-trap drain kit. See it in action here: http://youtu.be/jCdJsMDWjUE Buy appliance parts and get free repair help at http://Appliantology.org
Views: 338481 SamuraiRepairman
Alloy
 
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An alloy is a mixture or solid solution composed of a metal and another element. An alloy contains one or more of the three: a solid solution of the elements (a single phase); a mixture of metallic phases (two or more solutions); an intermetallic compound with no distinct boundary between the phases. Solid solution alloys give a single solid phase microstructure, while partial solutions exhibit two or more phases that may or may not be homogeneous in distribution, depending on the thermal (heat treatment) history of the material. An inter-metallic compound has one other alloy or pure metal embedded within another pure metal. Alloys are used in some applications, where their properties are superior to those of the pure component elements for a given application. Examples of alloys are steel, solder, brass, pewter, phosphor bronze and an amalgam. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 665 Audiopedia
Recycle/ Re use/ Re fill your yankee candle jar
 
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Learn how to remove old wax and recycle your yankee candle jar. Whether you want to refill it with more wax, or use it to store accessories, this is an easy way to clean up your jars. Will work with almost all other candles/ jars too :) This technique could be use by crafters to empty jars and reuse for other purposes. Please be careful if you are a child, and find an adult to help you.
Views: 125585 Christmas Crafts
Iron ore
 
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Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 537 Audiopedia
Iron-process how can we make use of iron ore
 
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HowStuffWorks "Iron:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html MAKE | Smelting iron ore in a:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html How is Iron Refined from:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html The Processes or Iron and Steel:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html Iron ore:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html Direct reduced iron:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html How iron is made:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html Iron is the world's mostmonly used metal - steel, of which iron ore is the key ingredient, representing almost 95% of all metal used per year.[2] It is used primarily in structural engineering applications and in maritime purposes, automobiles, and general industrial applications (machinery). There are a number of solutions to a high aluminium slag. The first is avoidance; don't use ore or a lime source with a high aluminium content. Increasing the ratio of lime flux will decrease the viscosity (Rosenqvist , p. 311). It was helpful but I needed more info on which refining process is used for iron, like smelting, electrolysis or displacement so I could use it for my school project. Directly reduced iron is highly susceptible to oxidation and rusting if left unprotected, and is normally quickly processed further to steel.[citation needed] The bulk iron can also catch fire since it is pyrophoric.[2] An improvement to Cort's puddling process came from Joseph Hall in . Hall added mill scale (iron oxide formed and broken off during the forging and rolling) to the Cast Iron at the start of the Puddling process. Once the iron had melted, the carbon monoxide formed by the mill scale bubbled up through the iron giving the impression of boiling, thus themon name for this refinement 'Pig Boiling'. The availability of Iron Ore was the key to the early iron industry. Even today (and more conspicuously up to the s) a number of steelworks sites were d
Views: 764 Jacqueline Sabrina
Fixing an Iced-Up Bottom-Mount Freezer in a Maytag-Whirlpool Refrigerator
 
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For more tech advice on your repair, or to order parts, visit http://Appliantology.org Become a certified appliance repair technician at our online school, the Samurai Tech Academy: http://MasterSamuraiTech.com In this hand-to-appliance combat, Samurai Appliance Repair Man shows you how to fix an icing-up problem in the freezer of an Whirlpool-built bottom-mount refrigerator. Topic covered include: - The two different types of ice found in freezers and what they mean - Removing the door - Removing the ice maker and door rail holsters - Removing the air grill for final access to the condensate drain - Super Secret Samurai Ice Clearing Techniques! - Patented Samurai technique for clearing frozen condensate drains - Make steam power work for you! - Secret Samurai Trick for re-installing the GITMO-designed upper rack UPDATE: See this video for an even better technique for removing/reinstalling that rack: http://youtu.be/6UB7jPvwUrw In some of these Whirlpool-built bottom-mount units, there is a duck bill check valve grommet on the end of the defrost drain tube that gets gunked up. See this video for more on that: http://youtu.be/fea75FySAQ0 Here's the handheld steamer I used in the video: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B000VLSNPC/ref=as_li_ss_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B000VLSNPC&linkCode=as2&tag=mrssamskit-20 For more repair help or to order parts, visit http://appliantology.org
Views: 332268 SamuraiRepairman
Pancakes First Chasten Whitfield Cast Net
 
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Pancakes First Chasten Whitfield's famous pink cast net
Views: 433 Chasten Whitfield
Freezer Clogged Drain Tube FIX 👍🏽
 
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If water is leaking inside your refrigerator, the drain tube is clogged. Unplug the refrigerator, remove and clean plastic collection tray/tube piece, and spray hot water with bleach or vinegar (not both) into drain tube in back of 'fridge. Reattach the tray/tube assembly and you're good to go.
Views: 11904 Legend of Green Man
Chemistry,(Lec-8)Ferrous Alloys & Manufacturing Of Wrought Iron(D & F Block Elements),Class 12 XII
 
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Watch All Videos: http://bit.ly/xi-xii-videos Chemistry,Ferrous Alloys & Manufacturing Of Wrought Iron(D & F Block Elements),Class 12 This Video Covers Movements of dislocations and dislocation density and impurity atom percentage vs hardness and stregth of a material. Discussion of various properties and comparison between wrought iron , steels and the cast iron.details of puddling furnace for manufacturing wrought iron and how impurities like Si, C, P etc are oxidized and removed Buy Full Video For Rs. 200 At www.sci4you.com Subscribe To Our channel-https://goo.gl/c8xz5F Class 12 Chemistry-Solid State-https://goo.gl/3EZtnL Class 12 Chemistry-Aldehydes & Ketones-https://goo.gl/ONFfXv Class 12 Chemistry-D & F Block Elements-https://goo.gl/gZmFRm Class 12 Chemistry-Solutions-https://goo.gl/q8Yl0K Class 12 Chemistry-Electrochemistry-https://goo.gl/rXzz69 Class 12 Chemistry-Chemical Kinetics-https://goo.gl/z32j1C Class 12 Chemistry-P Block Elements-https://goo.gl/3RsmlG Class 12 Chemistry-Haloalaknes & Haloarenes-https://goo.gl/v7n1Fk Class 12 Chemistry-Alcohals,Phenols & Ethers-https://goo.gl/ht8eY4 Class 12 Chemistry-Polymers-https://goo.gl/9bsAMd sci4you Get Online Tuition For Class 8-Class 12 Science(Physics,Chemistry,Maths,Biology) at https://sci4you.com/product-category/online-tuition/ Get Online Tuition For Class 8-Class 12 Science(Physics,Chemistry,Maths,Biology) at https://sci4you.com/product-category/online-tuition/ SUBSCRIBE✔ LIKE✔ COMMENT✔ SHARE✔ Subscribe Now ➜ https://goo.gl/zndQj9 #class11physics #Class11physicssci4you
Views: 542 sci4you
Storm Over Warlock by Andre Norton
 
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The Throg task force struck the Terran survey camp a few minutes after dawn, without warning, and with a deadly precision which argued that the aliens had fully reconnoitered and prepared that attack. Eye-searing lances of energy lashed back and forth across the base with methodical accuracy. And a single cowering witness, flattened on a ledge in the heights above, knew that when the last of those yellow-red bolts fell, nothing human would be left alive down there. And so Shann Lantee, most menial of the Terrans attached to the camp on the planet Warlock, was left alone and weaponless in the strange, hostile world, the human prey of the aliens from space and the aliens on the ground alike. Chapter 01. Disaster - 00:00 Chapter 02. Death of a Ship - 22:16 Chapter 03. To Close Ranks - 45:36 Chapter 04. Sortie - 1:06:07 Chapter 05. Pursuit - 1:29:04 Chapter 06. The Hound - 1:52:42 Chapter 07. Unwelcome Guide - 2:14:08 Chapter 08. Utgaard - 2:38:14 Chapter 09. One Alone - 3:01:16 Chapter 10. A Trap for a Trapper - 3:23:42 Chapter 11. The Witch - 3:48:34 Chapter 12. The Veil of Illusion - 4:14:21 Chapter 13. He Who Dreams... - 4:38:58 Chapter 14. Escape - 5:03:58 Chapter 15. Dragon Slayer - 5:27:58 Chapter 16. Third Prisoner - 5:51:25 Chapter 17. Throg Justice - 6:17:12 Chapter 18. Storm's Ending - 6:40:12
Industrialism | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution 00:03:37 1 Etymology 00:05:16 2 Important technological developments 00:07:31 2.1 Textile manufacture 00:07:39 2.1.1 British textile industry statistics 00:09:21 2.1.2 Cotton 00:11:12 2.1.3 Trade and textiles 00:12:21 2.1.4 Pre-mechanized European textile production 00:14:03 2.1.5 Invention of textile machinery 00:19:48 2.1.6 Wool 00:20:11 2.1.7 Silk 00:20:52 2.2 Iron industry 00:21:01 2.2.1 UK iron production statistics 00:22:47 2.2.2 Iron process innovations 00:31:27 2.3 Steam power 00:36:04 2.4 Machine tools 00:40:20 2.5 Chemicals 00:43:15 2.6 Cement 00:44:01 2.7 Gas lighting 00:44:54 2.8 Glass making 00:45:34 2.9 Paper machine 00:46:17 2.10 Agriculture 00:47:58 2.11 Mining 00:49:50 2.12 Transportation 00:50:52 2.12.1 Canals and improved waterways 00:53:30 2.12.2 Roads 00:54:44 2.12.3 Railways 00:58:01 2.13 Other developments 00:58:26 3 Social effects 00:58:35 3.1 Factory system 01:00:53 3.2 Standards of living 01:02:51 3.2.1 Food and nutrition 01:04:26 3.2.2 Housing 01:06:30 3.2.3 Sanitation 01:07:07 3.2.4 Water supply 01:07:31 3.2.5 Increase in literacy 01:07:54 3.3 Clothing and consumer goods 01:08:37 3.4 Population increase 01:09:30 3.5 Urbanization 01:10:10 3.6 Impact on women and family life 01:12:20 3.7 Labour conditions 01:12:28 3.7.1 Social structure and working conditions 01:13:43 3.7.2 Factories and urbanisation 01:16:13 3.7.3 Child labour 01:19:24 3.7.4 Organisation of labour 01:22:29 3.7.5 Luddites 01:23:54 3.7.6 Shift in production's center of gravity 01:24:28 3.7.7 Effect on cotton production and expansion of slavery 01:25:56 3.8 Impact on environment 01:28:27 4 Industrialisation beyond the United Kingdom 01:28:38 4.1 Continental Europe 01:29:27 4.1.1 Belgium 01:31:23 4.1.1.1 Demographic effects 01:33:41 4.1.2 France 01:34:32 4.1.3 Germany 01:36:09 4.1.4 Sweden 01:37:49 4.2 Japan 01:39:02 4.3 United States 01:44:53 5 Second Industrial Revolution 01:46:34 6 Causes 01:50:34 6.1 Causes in Europe 01:55:47 6.2 Causes in Britain 02:02:50 6.3 Transfer of knowledge 02:05:17 6.3.1 Protestant work ethic 02:07:20 7 Opposition from Romanticism Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9732251377638184 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the US, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system. The Industrial Revolution also led to an unprecedented rise in the rate of population growth. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested. The textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods.The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, and many of the technological innovations were of British origin. By the mid-18th century Britain was the world's leading commercial nation, controlling a global trading empire with colonies in North America and the Caribbean, and with some political influence on the Indian subcontinent, through the activities of the East India Company. The development of trade and the rise of business were major causes of the Industrial Revolution.The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. Some economists say that the major impact of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population began to increase consistently for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to mea ...
Views: 37 wikipedia tts
Industrial Revolution | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:18:26
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Industrial Revolution Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested. The textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods.The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, and many of the technological innovations were of British origin. By the mid-18th century Britain was the world's leading commercial nation, controlling a global trading empire with colonies in North America and the Caribbean, and with some political influence on the Indian subcontinent, through the activities of the East India Company. The development of trade and the rise of business were major causes of the Industrial Revolution.The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. Some economists say that the major impact of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population began to increase consistently for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to meaningfully improve until the late 19th and 20th centuries.GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy, while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies. Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants.Although the structural change from agriculture to industry is widely associated with Industrial Revolution, in United Kingdom it was already almost complete by 1760.The precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes. Eric Hobsbawm held that the Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1780s and was not fully felt until the 1830s or 1840s, while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred roughly between 1760 and 1830. Rapid industrialization first began in Britain, starting with mechanized spinning in the 1780s, with high rates of growth in steam power and iron production occurring after 1800. Mechanized textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe and the United States in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles, iron and coal emerging in Belgium and the United States and later textiles in France.An economic recession occurred from the late 1830s to the early 1840s when the adoption of the original innovations of the Industrial Revolution, such as mechanized spinning and weaving, slowed and their markets matured. Innovations developed late in the period, such as the increasing adoption of locomotives, steamboats and steamships, hot blast iron smelting and new technologies, such as the electrical telegraph, widely introduced in the 1840s and 1850s, were not powerful enough to drive high rates of growth. Rapid economic growth began to occur after 1870, springing from a new group of innovations in what has been called the Second Industrial Revolution. These new innovations included new steel making processes, the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the use of increasingly advanced machinery in steam-powered factories.
Views: 92 wikipedia tts
Science and technology of the Han dynasty | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:23:29
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science_and_technology_of_the_Han_dynasty 00:04:12 1 Modern perspectives on science and technology during Han 00:06:55 2 Writing materials 00:09:02 3 Ceramics 00:11:42 4 Metallurgy 00:11:52 4.1 Furnaces and smelting techniques 00:14:09 4.2 Use of steel, iron, and bronze 00:15:59 5 Agriculture 00:16:08 5.1 Tools and methods 00:17:28 5.2 Alternating fields 00:20:13 5.3 Pit fields 00:21:33 5.4 Rice paddies 00:22:37 6 Mechanical and hydraulic engineering 00:22:48 6.1 Literary sources and archaeological evidence 00:27:47 6.2 Uses of the waterwheel and water clock 00:30:31 6.3 Seismometer 00:33:34 7 Mathematics and astronomy 00:33:44 7.1 Mathematical treatises 00:35:33 7.2 Innovations in the treatises 00:37:45 7.3 Approximations of pi 00:39:38 7.4 Musical tuning and theory 00:39:48 7.5 Astronomical observations 00:41:09 7.6 Han calendars 00:42:10 7.7 Astronomical theory 00:43:41 8 Structural engineering and public works 00:46:55 8.1 Materials and construction 00:48:58 8.2 Courtyard homes 00:51:41 8.3 Chang'an and Luoyang, the Han capitals 00:51:52 8.4 Underground tombs 00:54:03 8.5 Boreholes and mining shafts 00:55:06 8.6 Ceramic model buildings 00:58:52 8.7 Roads, bridges, and canals 01:01:22 9 Medicine 01:02:49 10 Cartography 01:06:12 11 Nautics and vehicles 01:09:56 12 Weaponry and war machines 01:14:03 13 See also 01:17:22 14 Notes 01:21:14 15 References 01:22:58 16 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8979408224315483 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) of ancient China, divided between the eras of Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE, when the capital was at Chang'an), Xin dynasty of Wang Mang (r. AD 9–23), and Eastern Han (25–220 CE, when the capital was at Luoyang, and after 196 CE at Xuchang), witnessed some of the most significant advancements in premodern Chinese science and technology. There were great innovations in metallurgy. In addition to Zhou-dynasty China's (c. 1050 – 256 BCE) previous inventions of the blast furnace and cupola furnace to make pig iron and cast iron, respectively, the Han period saw the development of steel and wrought iron by use of the finery forge and puddling process. With the drilling of deep boreholes into the earth, the Chinese used not only derricks to lift brine up to the surface to be boiled into salt, but also set up bamboo-crafted pipeline transport systems which brought natural gas as fuel to the furnaces. Smelting techniques were enhanced with inventions such as the waterwheel-powered bellows; the resulting widespread distribution of iron tools facilitated the growth of agriculture. For tilling the soil and planting straight rows of crops, the improved heavy-moldboard plough with three iron plowshares and sturdy multiple-tube iron seed drill were invented in the Han, which greatly enhanced production yields and thus sustained population growth. The method of supplying irrigation ditches with water was improved with the invention of the mechanical chain pump powered by the rotation of a waterwheel or draft animals, which could transport irrigation water up elevated terrains. The waterwheel was also used for operating trip hammers in pounding grain and in rotating the metal rings of the mechanical-driven astronomical armillary sphere representing the celestial sphere around the Earth. The quality of life was improved with many Han inventions. The Han Chinese had hempen-bound bamboo scrolls to write on, yet by the 2nd century CE had invented the papermaking process which created a writing medium that was both cheap and easy to produce. The invention of the wheelbarrow aided in the hauling of heavy loads. The maritime junk ship and stern-mounted steering rudder enabled the Chinese to venture out of calmer waters of interior lakes and rivers and into the open sea. The invention of the g ...
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The Industrial Revolution | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:53:56
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution 00:04:56 1 Etymology 00:07:08 2 Important technological developments 00:10:09 2.1 Textile manufacture 00:10:19 2.1.1 British textile industry statistics 00:12:37 2.1.2 Cotton 00:15:06 2.1.3 Trade and textiles 00:16:38 2.1.4 Pre-mechanized European textile production 00:18:57 2.1.5 Invention of textile machinery 00:26:49 2.1.6 Wool 00:27:17 2.1.7 Silk 00:28:12 2.2 Iron industry 00:28:22 2.2.1 UK iron production statistics 00:30:46 2.2.2 Iron process innovations 00:42:39 2.3 Steam power 00:48:58 2.4 Machine tools 00:54:50 2.5 Chemicals 00:58:46 2.6 Cement 00:59:48 2.7 Gas lighting 01:01:00 2.8 Glass making 01:01:52 2.9 Paper machine 01:02:50 2.10 Agriculture 01:05:05 2.11 Mining 01:07:38 2.12 Transportation 01:09:01 2.12.1 Canals and improved waterways 01:12:38 2.12.2 Roads 01:14:17 2.12.3 Railways 01:18:47 2.13 Other developments 01:19:19 3 Social effects 01:19:29 3.1 Factory system 01:22:35 3.2 Standards of living 01:25:15 3.2.1 Food and nutrition 01:27:22 3.2.2 Housing 01:30:11 3.2.3 Sanitation 01:31:00 3.2.4 Water supply 01:31:30 3.2.5 Increase in literacy 01:31:59 3.3 Clothing and consumer goods 01:32:57 3.4 Population increase 01:34:06 3.5 Urbanization 01:34:57 3.6 Impact on women and family life 01:37:54 3.7 Labour conditions 01:38:04 3.7.1 Social structure and working conditions 01:39:43 3.7.2 Factories and urbanisation 01:43:06 3.7.3 Child labour 01:47:28 3.7.4 Organisation of labour 01:51:42 3.7.5 Luddites 01:53:37 3.7.6 Shift in production's center of gravity 01:54:21 3.7.7 Effect on cotton production and expansion of slavery 01:56:19 3.8 Impact on environment 01:59:44 4 Industrialisation beyond the United Kingdom 01:59:56 4.1 Continental Europe 02:01:01 4.1.1 Belgium 02:03:38 4.1.1.1 Demographic effects 02:06:44 4.1.2 France 02:07:50 4.1.3 Germany 02:10:01 4.1.4 Sweden 02:12:14 4.2 Japan 02:13:52 4.3 United States 02:21:51 5 Second Industrial Revolution 02:24:06 6 Causes 02:29:33 6.1 Causes in Europe 02:36:42 6.2 Causes in Britain 02:46:23 6.3 Transfer of knowledge 02:49:40 6.3.1 Protestant work ethic 02:52:27 7 Opposition from Romanticism Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.800584232794365 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the US, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system. The Industrial Revolution also led to an unprecedented rise in the rate of population growth. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested. The textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods.The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, and many of the technological innovations were of British origin. By the mid-18th century Britain was the world's leading commercial nation, controlling a global trading empire with colonies in North America and the Caribbean, and with some political influence on the Indian subcontinent, through the activities of the East India Company. The development of trade and the rise of business were major causes of the Industrial Revolution.The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. Some economists say that the major impact of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population began to increase consistently for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to mean ...
Views: 80 wikipedia tts
Iron industry | Wikipedia audio article
 
40:03
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferrous_metallurgy 00:02:32 1 Meteoritic iron 00:04:41 2 Native iron 00:05:05 3 Iron smelting and the Iron Age 00:07:14 3.1 Ancient Near East 00:09:59 3.1.1 Theories on the origin of iron smelting 00:11:40 3.2 Indian Sub-Continent 00:15:34 3.3 China 00:20:28 3.4 Iron Age Europe 00:21:38 3.5 Africa south of the Sahara 00:23:22 3.6 Medieval Islamic world 00:26:06 4 Medieval and Early Modern Europe 00:26:43 4.1 Powered bloomeries 00:27:43 4.2 Blast furnace 00:29:04 4.3 Finery forge 00:29:56 4.4 Cementation process 00:31:28 4.5 Crucible steel 00:31:55 5 Transition to coke in England 00:32:06 5.1 Beginnings 00:33:22 5.2 Abraham Darby and his successors 00:34:36 5.3 New forge processes 00:35:50 6 Hot blast 00:36:30 7 Industrial steelmaking 00:39:31 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8870762009990488 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of iron and its alloys. It began far back in prehistory. The earliest surviving iron artifacts, from the 4th millennium BC in Egypt, were made from meteoritic iron-nickel. It is not known when or where the smelting of iron from ores began, but by the end of the 2nd millennium BC iron was being produced from iron ores from Sub-Saharan Africa to China. The use of wrought iron (worked iron) was known by the 1st millennium BC, and its spread marked the Iron Age. During the medieval period, means were found in Europe of producing wrought iron from cast iron (in this context known as pig iron) using finery forges. For all these processes, charcoal was required as fuel. Steel (with a carbon content between pig iron and wrought iron) was first produced in antiquity as an alloy. Its process of production, Wootz steel, was exported before the 4th century BC from India to ancient China, Africa, the Middle East and Europe. Archaeological evidence of cast iron appears in 5th-century BC China. New methods of producing it by carburizing bars of iron in the cementation process were devised in the 17th century. During the Industrial Revolution, new methods of producing bar iron by substituting coke for charcoal were devised and these were later applied to produce steel, creating a new era of greatly increased use of iron and steel that some contemporaries described as a new Iron Age. In the late 1850s, Henry Bessemer invented a new steelmaking process, that involved blowing air through molten pig iron to burn off carbon, and so to produce mild steel. This and other 19th-century and later steel making processes have displaced wrought iron. Today, wrought iron is no longer produced on a commercial scale, having been displaced by the functionally equivalent mild or low carbon steel.The largest and most modern underground iron ore mine in the world is located in Kiruna, Norrbotten County, Lapland. The mine which is owned by Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB, a large Swedish mining company, has an annual production capacity of over 26 million tonnes of iron ore.
Views: 8 wikipedia tts
Technological and industrial history of the United States | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:11:29
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Technological and industrial history of the United States Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The technological and industrial history of the United States describes the United States' emergence as one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world. The availability of land and literate labor, the absence of a landed aristocracy, the prestige of entrepreneurship, the diversity of climate and a large easily accessed upscale and literate free market all contributed to America's rapid industrialisation. The availability of capital, development by the free market of navigable rivers, and coastal waterways, and the abundance of natural resources facilitated the cheap extraction of energy all contributed to America's rapid industrialization. Fast transport by the very large railroad built in the mid-19th century, and the Interstate Highway System built in the late 20th century, enlarged the markets and reducing shipping and production costs. The legal system facilitated business operations and guaranteed contracts. Cut off from Europe by the embargo and the British blockade in the War of 1812 (1807–15), entrepreneurs opened factories in the Northeast that set the stage for rapid industrialization modeled on British innovations. From its emergence as an independent nation, the United States has encouraged science and innovation. As a result, the United States has been the birthplace of 161 of Britannica's 321 Greatest Inventions, including items such as the airplane, internet, microchip, laser, cellphone, refrigerator, email, microwave, personal computer, Liquid-crystal display and light-emitting diode technology, air conditioning, assembly line, supermarket, bar code, automated teller machine, and many more.The early technological and industrial development in the United States was facilitated by a unique confluence of geographical, social, and economic factors. The relative lack of workers kept United States wages nearly always higher than corresponding British and European workers and provided an incentive to mechanize some tasks. The United States population had some semi-unique advantages in that they were former British subjects, had high English literacy skills, for that period (over 80% in New England), had strong British institutions, with some minor American modifications, of courts, laws, right to vote, protection of property rights and in many cases personal contacts among the British innovators of the Industrial Revolution. They had a good basic structure to build on. Another major advantage, which the British lacked, was no inherited aristocratic institutions. The eastern seaboard of the United States, with a great number of rivers and streams along the Atlantic seaboard, provided many potential sites for constructing textile mills necessary for early industrialization. The technology and information on how to build a textile industry was largely provided by Samuel Slater (1768–1835) who emigrated to New England in 1789. He had studied and worked in British textile mills for a number of years and immigrated to the United States, despite restrictions against it, to try his luck with U.S. manufacturers who were trying to set up a textile industry. He was offered a full partnership if he could succeed—he did. A vast supply of natural resources, the technological knowledge on how to build and power the necessary machines along with a labor supply of mobile workers, often unmarried females, all aided early industrialization. The broad knowledge of the Industrial Revolution and Scientific revolution helped facilitate understanding for the construction and invention of new manufacturing businesses and technologies. A limited government that would allow them to succeed or fail on their own merit helped. After the close of the American Revolution in 1783, the new government continued the strong property rights established under British rule and established a rule of law necessary to protect those ...
Views: 41 wikipedia tts
American Industrial Revolution | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:20:30
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technological_and_industrial_history_of_the_United_States 00:07:50 1 Pre-European technology 00:09:48 2 Colonial era 00:09:58 2.1 Agriculture 00:10:59 2.2 Artisanship 00:11:52 2.3 Silver working 00:16:23 2.4 Factories and mills 00:23:11 2.5 Turnpikes and canals 00:32:28 2.6 Steamboats 00:35:28 2.7 Mining 00:35:36 2.8 Civil War 00:35:49 3 Technological systems and infrastructure 00:36:30 3.1 Railroads 00:39:13 3.2 Iron and steel-making 00:43:10 3.3 Telegraph and telephone 00:46:00 3.4 Petroleum 00:49:59 3.5 Electricity 00:56:24 3.6 Automobiles 01:00:05 4 Effects of industrialization 01:00:15 4.1 Agricultural production 01:03:12 4.2 Urbanization 01:04:36 4.3 Labor issues and immigration 01:06:25 4.4 Banking, trading, and financial services 01:07:03 4.5 Regulation 01:07:37 5 Military-industrial-academic complex 01:08:52 5.1 Research universities 01:11:08 5.2 World War I and World War II 01:13:18 5.3 Cold War and Space Race 01:15:16 5.4 Computers and information networks 01:16:46 6 Service industry 01:16:56 6.1 Health care and biotechnology 01:19:06 6.2 News, media, and entertainment 01:19:22 7 Technology and society 01:19:40 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8999391665820107 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The technological and industrial history of the United States describes the United States' emergence as one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world. The availability of land and literate labor, the absence of a landed aristocracy, the prestige of entrepreneurship, the diversity of climate and a large easily accessed upscale and literate free market all contributed to America's rapid industrialisation. The availability of capital, development by the free market of navigable rivers, and coastal waterways, and the abundance of natural resources facilitated the cheap extraction of energy all contributed to America's rapid industrialization. Fast transport by the very large railroad built in the mid-19th century, and the Interstate Highway System built in the late 20th century, enlarged the markets and reducing shipping and production costs. The legal system facilitated business operations and guaranteed contracts. Cut off from Europe by the embargo and the British blockade in the War of 1812 (1807–15), entrepreneurs opened factories in the Northeast that set the stage for rapid industrialization modeled on British innovations. From its emergence as an independent nation, the United States has encouraged science and innovation. As a result, the United States has been the birthplace of 161 of Britannica's 321 Greatest Inventions, including items such as the airplane, internet, microchip, laser, cellphone, refrigerator, email, microwave, personal computer, Liquid-crystal display and light-emitting diode technology, air conditioning, assembly line, supermarket, bar code, automated teller machine, and many more.The early technological and industrial development in the United States was facilitated by a unique confluence of geographical, social, and economic factors. The relative lack of workers kept United States wages nearly always higher than corresponding British and European workers and provided an incentive to mechanize some tasks. The United States population had some semi-unique advantages in that they were former British subjects, had high English literacy skills, for that period (over 80% in New England), had strong British institutions, with some minor American modifications, of courts, laws, right to vote, protection of property rights and in many cases personal contacts among the British innovators of the Industrial Revolution. They had a good basic structure to build on. Another major advantage, which the British lacked, was no inherited aristocratic institutions. The eastern seaboard of the United States, with a great number of ri ...
Views: 16 wikipedia tts
Technological and industrial history of the United States | Wikipedia audio article | Wikipedia  ...
 
01:11:29
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Technological and industrial history of the United States | Wikipedia audio article Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The technological and industrial history of the United States describes the United States' emergence as one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world. The availability of land and literate labor, the absence of a landed aristocracy, the prestige of entrepreneurship, the diversity of climate and a large easily accessed upscale and literate free market all contributed to America's rapid industrialisation. The availability of capital, development by the free market of navigable rivers, and coastal waterways, and the abundance of natural resources facilitated the cheap extraction of energy all contributed to America's rapid industrialization. Fast transport by the very large railroad built in the mid-19th century, and the Interstate Highway System built in the late 20th century, enlarged the markets and reducing shipping and production costs. The legal system facilitated business operations and guaranteed contracts. Cut off from Europe by the embargo and the British blockade in the War of 1812 (1807–15), entrepreneurs opened factories in the Northeast that set the stage for rapid industrialization modeled on British innovations. From its emergence as an independent nation, the United States has encouraged science and innovation. As a result, the United States has been the birthplace of 161 of Britannica's 321 Greatest Inventions, including items such as the airplane, internet, microchip, laser, cellphone, refrigerator, email, microwave, personal computer, Liquid-crystal display and light-emitting diode technology, air conditioning, assembly line, supermarket, bar code, automated teller machine, and many more.The early technological and industrial development in the United States was facilitated by a unique confluence of geographical, social, and economic factors. The relative lack of workers kept United States wages nearly always higher than corresponding British and European workers and provided an incentive to mechanize some tasks. The United States population had some semi-unique advantages in that they were former British subjects, had high English literacy skills, for that period (over 80% in New England), had strong British institutions, with some minor American modifications, of courts, laws, right to vote, protection of property rights and in many cases personal contacts among the British innovators of the Industrial Revolution. They had a good basic structure to build on. Another major advantage, which the British lacked, was no inherited aristocratic institutions. The eastern seaboard of the United States, with a great number of rivers and streams along the Atlantic seaboard, provided many potential sites for constructing textile mills necessary for early industrialization. The technology and information on how to build a textile industry was largely provided by Samuel Slater (1768–1835) who emigrated to New England in 1789. He had studied and worked in British textile mills for a number of years and immigrated to the United States, despite restrictions against it, to try his luck with U.S. manufacturers who were trying to set up a textile industry. He was offered a full partnership if he could succeed—he did. A vast supply of natural resources, the technological knowledge on how to build and power the necessary machines along with a labor supply of mobile workers, often unmarried females, all aided early industrialization. The broad knowledge of the Industrial Revolution and Scientific revolution helped facilitate understanding for the construction and invention of new manufacturing businesses and technologies. A limited government that would allow them to succeed or fail on their own merit helped. After the close of the American Revolution in 1783, the new government continued the strong property rights established under British rule and established a rule of law necessary to protect those pro ...
Views: 37 wikipedia tts
Iron | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:19:58
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron 00:03:21 1 Characteristics 00:03:30 1.1 Mechanical properties 00:05:01 1.2 Phase diagram and allotropes 00:09:15 1.3 Isotopes 00:13:41 1.4 Occurrence 00:17:48 2 Chemistry and compounds 00:22:10 2.1 Binary compounds 00:24:10 2.2 Solution chemistry 00:24:33 2.3 Coordination compounds 00:26:46 2.4 Organometallic compounds 00:29:14 3 Etymology 00:31:16 4 History 00:35:42 4.1 Wrought iron 00:37:32 4.2 Cast iron 00:37:41 4.3 Steel 00:41:51 4.4 Foundations of modern chemistry 00:44:13 5 Symbolic role 00:45:25 6 spanProduction of metallic iron 00:45:56 6.1 Industrial routes 00:47:13 6.1.1 Blast furnace processing 00:47:23 6.1.2 Direct iron reduction 00:48:15 6.1.3 Thermite 00:50:43 6.1.4 Further processes 00:51:41 7 Applications 00:52:01 7.1 Metallurgical 00:53:18 7.2 Iron compounds 00:53:28 8 Biological and pathological role 00:59:57 8.1 Biochemistry 01:01:24 8.2 Health and diet 01:02:25 8.3 Dietary recommendations 01:10:05 8.4 Deficiency 01:11:14 8.5 Excess 01:14:47 8.6 Cancer 01:15:40 9 See also 01:18:36 10 References 01:19:15 11 Bibliography Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9326697379227336 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova, which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements, ruthenium and osmium, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust. Unlike the metals that form passivating oxide layers, iron oxides occupy more volume than the metal and thus flake off, exposing fresh surfaces for corrosion. Iron metal has been used since ancient times, although copper alloys, which have lower melting temperatures, were used even earlier in human history. Pure iron is relatively soft, but is unobtainable by smelting because it is significantly hardened and strengthened by impurities, in particular carbon, from the smelting process. A certain proportion of carbon (between 0.002% and 2.1%) produces steel, which may be up to 1000 times harder than pure iron. Crude iron metal is produced in blast furnaces, where ore is reduced by coke to pig iron, which has a high carbon content. Further refinement with oxygen reduces the carbon content to the correct proportion to make steel. Steels and iron alloys formed with other metals (alloy steels) are by far the most common industrial metals because they have a great range of desirable properties and iron-bearing rock is abundant. Iron chemical compounds have many uses. Iron oxide mixed with aluminium powder can be ignited to create a thermite reaction, used in welding and purifying ores. Iron forms binary compounds with the halogens and the chalcogens. Among its organometallic compounds is ferrocene, the first sandwich compound discovered. Iron plays an important role in biology, forming complexes with molecular oxygen in hemoglobin and myoglobin; these two compounds are common oxygen transport proteins in vertebrates. Iron is also the metal at the active site of many important redox enzymes dealing with cellular respiration and oxidation and reduction in plants and animals. In adult human males are some 3.8 grams of iron, and 2.3 grams in female ...
Views: 23 wikipedia tts
Industrial Revolution | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:18:26
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Industrial Revolution Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested. The textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods.The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, and many of the technological innovations were of British origin. By the mid-18th century Britain was the world's leading commercial nation, controlling a global trading empire with colonies in North America and the Caribbean, and with some political influence on the Indian subcontinent, through the activities of the East India Company. The development of trade and the rise of business were major causes of the Industrial Revolution.The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. Some economists say that the major impact of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population began to increase consistently for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to meaningfully improve until the late 19th and 20th centuries.GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy, while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies. Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants.Although the structural change from agriculture to industry is widely associated with Industrial Revolution, in United Kingdom it was already almost complete by 1760.The precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes. Eric Hobsbawm held that the Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1780s and was not fully felt until the 1830s or 1840s, while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred roughly between 1760 and 1830. Rapid industrialization first began in Britain, starting with mechanized spinning in the 1780s, with high rates of growth in steam power and iron production occurring after 1800. Mechanized textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe and the United States in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles, iron and coal emerging in Belgium and the United States and later textiles in France.An economic recession occurred from the late 1830s to the early 1840s when the adoption of the original innovations of the Industrial Revolution, such as mechanized spinning and weaving, slowed and their markets matured. Innovations developed late in the period, such as the increasing adoption of locomotives, steamboats and steamships, hot blast iron smelting and new technologies, such as the electrical telegraph, widely introduced in the 1840s and 1850s, were not powerful enough to drive high rates of growth. Rapid economic growth began to occur after 1870, springing from a new group of innovations in what has been called the Second Industrial Revolution. These new innovations included new steel making processes, the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the use of increasingly advanced machinery in steam-powered factories.
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Alloy | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Alloy 00:01:24 1 Introduction 00:05:46 2 Terminology 00:08:58 3 Theory 00:12:08 4 Heat-treatable alloys 00:15:27 5 Substitutional and interstitial alloys 00:16:55 6 History and examples 00:17:04 6.1 Meteoric iron 00:17:51 6.2 Bronze and brass 00:19:13 6.3 Amalgams 00:20:00 6.4 Precious-metal alloys 00:21:00 6.5 Pewter 00:22:18 6.6 Steel and pig iron 00:25:18 6.6.1 Alloy steels 00:27:52 6.7 Precipitation-hardening alloys 00:28:49 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element. Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character. An alloy may be a solid solution of metal elements (a single phase) or a mixture of metallic phases (two or more solutions). Intermetallic compounds are alloys with a defined stoichiometry and crystal structure. Zintl phases are also sometimes considered alloys depending on bond types (see also: Van Arkel–Ketelaar triangle for information on classifying bonding in binary compounds). Alloys are used in a wide variety of applications. In some cases, a combination of metals may reduce the overall cost of the material while preserving important properties. In other cases, the combination of metals imparts synergistic properties to the constituent metal elements such as corrosion resistance or mechanical strength. Examples of alloys are steel, solder, brass, pewter, duralumin, bronze and amalgams. The alloy constituents are usually measured by mass percentage for practical applications, and in atomic fraction for basic science studies. Alloys are usually classified as substitutional or interstitial alloys, depending on the atomic arrangement that forms the alloy. They can be further classified as homogeneous (consisting of a single phase), or heterogeneous (consisting of two or more phases) or intermetallic.
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Alloy
 
24:33
An alloy is a mixture or solid solution composed of a metal and another element. An alloy contains one or more of the three: a solid solution of the elements ; a mixture of metallic phases ; an intermetallic compound with no distinct boundary between the phases. Solid solution alloys give a single solid phase microstructure, while partial solutions exhibit two or more phases that may or may not be homogeneous in distribution, depending on the thermal history of the material. An inter-metallic compound has one other alloy or pure metal embedded within another pure metal. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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Alloy | Wikipedia audio article
 
29:15
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alloy 00:01:25 1 Introduction 00:05:48 2 Terminology 00:09:00 3 Theory 00:12:11 4 Heat-treatable alloys 00:15:31 5 Substitutional and interstitial alloys 00:16:58 6 History and examples 00:17:08 6.1 Meteoric iron 00:17:55 6.2 Bronze and brass 00:19:17 6.3 Amalgams 00:20:04 6.4 Precious-metal alloys 00:21:05 6.5 Pewter 00:22:24 6.6 Steel and pig iron 00:25:25 6.6.1 Alloy steels 00:28:00 6.7 Precipitation-hardening alloys 00:28:57 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element. Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character. An alloy may be a solid solution of metal elements (a single phase) or a mixture of metallic phases (two or more solutions). Intermetallic compounds are alloys with a defined stoichiometry and crystal structure. Zintl phases are also sometimes considered alloys depending on bond types (see also: Van Arkel–Ketelaar triangle for information on classifying bonding in binary compounds). Alloys are used in a wide variety of applications. In some cases, a combination of metals may reduce the overall cost of the material while preserving important properties. In other cases, the combination of metals imparts synergistic properties to the constituent metal elements such as corrosion resistance or mechanical strength. Examples of alloys are steel, solder, brass, pewter, duralumin, bronze and amalgams. The alloy constituents are usually measured by mass percentage for practical applications, and in atomic fraction for basic science studies. Alloys are usually classified as substitutional or interstitial alloys, depending on the atomic arrangement that forms the alloy. They can be further classified as homogeneous (consisting of a single phase), or heterogeneous (consisting of two or more phases) or intermetallic.
Views: 0 wikipedia tts
Canal | Wikipedia audio article
 
37:13
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Canal 00:01:03 1 Types of artificial waterways 00:01:51 2 Structures used in artificial waterways 00:02:33 3 Types of canals 00:03:18 4 Importance 00:05:31 5 Construction 00:08:31 6 Features 00:12:13 7 History 00:12:49 7.1 Ancient canals 00:15:13 7.2 Middle Ages 00:18:19 7.3 Early modern period 00:19:41 7.4 Industrial Revolution 00:27:09 7.5 Power canals 00:28:22 7.6 19th century 00:31:32 7.7 Modern uses 00:33:25 8 Cities on water 00:35:23 9 Boats 00:36:36 10 Lists of canals Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. In most cases, the engineered works will have a series of dams and locks that create reservoirs of low speed current flow. These reservoirs are referred to as slack water levels, often just called levels. A canal is also known as a navigation when it parallels a river and shares part of its waters and drainage basin, and leverages its resources by building dams and locks to increase and lengthen its stretches of slack water levels while staying in its valley. In contrast, a canal cuts across a drainage divide atop a ridge, generally requiring an external water source above the highest elevation. Many canals have been built at elevations towering over valleys and other water ways crossing far below. Canals with sources of water at a higher level can deliver water to a destination such as a city where water is needed. The Roman Empire's Aqueducts were such water supply canals.
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