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Herbert Marcuse and the Frankfurt School (1977)
 
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In this program with world-renowned author and professor Bryan Magee, the late philosopher and radical political theorist Herbert Marcuse explains how the so-called Frankfurt School reevaluated Marxism when world economic crisis failed to destroy capitalism as predicted by Marx. He also analyzes the philosophical roots of the student rebellions of the sixties.
Views: 54555 mehranshargh
Facts and Myths About RDoC
 
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RDoC staff and grantees answer frequently asked questions about the initiative. Webinar was originally broadcast on October 13, 2015. Participants: Bruce Cuthbert, Ph.D., NIMH Acting Director Sarah Morris, Ph.D., RDoC Unit Acting Director Uma Vaidyanathan, Ph.D., RDoC Unit Scientific Program Manager Ian Gotlib, Ph.D., Stanford University, grantee Joan Kaufman, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, grantee Vilma Gabbay, M.D., Mt. Sinai Hospital, grantee Brandon Gibb, Ph.D., Binghamton University, grantee For more information: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/research-priorities/rdoc/index.shtml https://rdocforum.nimh.nih.gov/portal/ [email protected]
The Bible's Buried Secrets
 
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http://www.kpbs.org/
Views: 4960422 Eleonora Mazzanti
Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms that Differentiate Human and Non-Human Neural Development
 
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(Visit: http://www.uctv.tv/) 1:34 - ”Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms that Differentiate Human and Non-Human Neural Development - Fred H. Gage" This presentation provides a cellular and molecular analysis of comparative neural development in closely related hominids, which opens new avenues for understanding the differences in the neural underpinnings of cognition and neurological disease susceptibility between species. Recorded on 09/29/2017. Series: "CARTA - Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny" [Show ID: 32969]
Wake Up and Live! by Dorothea Brande
 
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Support New Wellness Living and this 'New Thought Series': Via Paypal: paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_s-xclick&hosted_button_id=PQRGZ58MG9EDA This book includes chapters: Why do we Fail? - The Will to Fail - Victims of the Will to Fail - The Rewards of Failure - Righting the Direction - The System in Operation - Warnings and Qualifications - On Saving Breath - The Task of the Imagination - On Codes and Standards - And the Best of Luck! Dorothea Brande was a well-respected writer and editor. Her book Becoming a Writer, published in 1934, is still in print and offers advice for beginning and sustaining any writing enterprise. She also wrote Wake Up and Live, published in 1936, which sold over two million copies. It was made into a musical by Twentieth Century Fox in 1937. Source: Wikipedia.org
Views: 76289 New Wellness Living 2
Post-Reunification Supports and Prevention of Reentry Into Out-of-Home Care
 
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Provides an overview of the benefits of reunification and post-reunification supports and explores how these strategies help prevent reentry into child welfare services. The presenters for this webinar, offered as part of National Foster Care Month 2016, include Jennifer Marcelli, the Center's Program Area Manager for foster care; Taffy Compain, National Foster Care Specialist at the Children's Bureau; Chrissy Triplett, Project Manager with the Catawba County Child Wellbeing Project, Inc.; Heather Ball, Evaluation Coordinator for the Child Wellbeing Project, Inc.; Phillip H. Redmond, Jr., Associate Director of the Child Care Division at the Duke Endowment; Karin Malm, a child welfare research and evaluation specialist; and a birth parent with firsthand experience of the child welfare system. Tags*:
Views: 369 usgovACF
Torture, Law, and War: Law and Philosophy
 
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Should the law absolutely ban coercive interrogation? And can and should it really mean it? Chair: Andrew Koppelman, Law, Northwestern University Panelists: Scott Anderson, Law, The University of Chicago, and Philosophy, The University of British Columbia Jeff McMahan, Philosophy, Rutgers University Eric Posner, Law, The University of Chicago This panel was recorded March 1, 2008 as part of the conference "Torture, Law and War." Recent events combined with shifts in government policy have reopened questions about how much and what kinds of coercion are appropriately used in the interrogation and detention of suspected criminals, enemy combatants, and accomplices. For the sake of protecting security and pursuing justice, some have urged we reexamine the usefulness and broad prohibitions of torture. Yet some basic questions about torture and coercive interrogation in particular are also in need of answer: How should we define torture? What can we learn from history about it? What are its effects on the tortured, on those who torture, and on societies in which it occurs? What should the law say about it? In conjunction with the University of Chicago Law School's year-long Law and Philosophy Workshop focused on coercion, the Law School hosted this conference to draw speakers from a variety of disciplines together to discuss these and related questions.
Nature or Nurture; How Do Genes, Environment and Free Will Affect Human Behavior?
 
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Nature or Nurture; How Do Genes, Environment and Free Will Affect Human Behavior?
Views: 63555 GRCCtv
23. AIDS (II)
 
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Epidemics in Western Society Since 1600 (HIST 234) Dr. Margaret Craven discusses HIV/AIDS from the perspective of a front-line clinician. AIDS is unprecedented in both the speed with which it spread across the globe and in the mobilization of efforts to control it. It is a disease of modernity. Along with the relative ease and velocity of modern transportation methods, other background conditions include Western medicine, with hypodermic needles and bloodbanking, intravenous drug use, and the development and concentration of gay culture. In the U.S., early public health attempts at understanding and combating the virus were hindered by right-wing domestic political and religious forces. Successful containment of epidemics cannot be achieved under the spell of hypocrisy and politicization; rather, medicine and education must be evidence-based and practical. 00:00 - Chapter 1. Dr. Margaret Craven Discusses AIDS 07:42 - Chapter 2. Beginnings of the Epidemic: Globalization 12:53 - Chapter 3. Modern Invasive Medical Technology 14:54 - Chapter 4. Homosexuality 20:36 - Chapter 5. Uncovering the Medical Basis 28:51 - Chapter 6. Treatment 33:26 - Chapter 7. Public Health Challenges 44:10 - Chapter 8. Future Directions Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://open.yale.edu/courses This course was recorded in Spring 2010.
Views: 14288 YaleCourses
CARTA: Gage-Neural Development; Eichler-Human-Specific Genes
 
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(Visit: http://www.uctv.tv/) 1:39 - Introductory Remarks 7:34 - Main Speaker: Fred R. Gage 27:35 - Main Speaker: Evan Eichler The Salk Institute's Rusty Gage and University of Washington's Evan Eichler explore the mechanisms and evolutionary pathways that have differentiated human neural development and allowed for the emergence of genes found only in humans. Recorded on 09/29/2017. Series: "CARTA - Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny" [11/2017] [Show ID: 32926]
February 2019 ACIP Meeting - Agency updates ; Pneumococcal vaccines
 
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Agency Updates & Unfinished Business; Pneumococcal Vaccines: Introduction PCV13 direct and indirect effects on serotype 3 disease, PCV13 direct effects on pneumonia hospitalizations in adults Comparison of economic analyses of PCV13 use among adults ≥65 years old, GRADE and Evidence to Recommendations (EtR) for PCV13 use among adults ≥65 years old in the context of indirect effects experience to date Comments on this video are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/CommentPolicy.html This video can also be viewed at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/videos/low-res/ACIPfeb2019/AgencyUpdates-PCV13_LowRes.mp4
Demystifying Medicine 2015 - Alcohol: How Does it Do the Things it Does?
 
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Demystifying Medicine 2015 - Alcohol: How Does it Do the Things it Does? Air date: Tuesday, March 17, 2015, 4:00:00 PM Category: Demystifying Medicine Runtime: 01:31:55 Description: The 2015 Demystifying Medicine Series, which is jointly sponsored by FAES and NIH, will begin January 6th and includes the presentation of patients, pathology, diagnosis and therapy in the context of major disease problems and current research. Primarily directed toward Ph.D. students, clinicians and program managers, the course is designed to help bridge the gap between advances in biology and their application to major human diseases. Each session includes clinical and basic science components presented by NIH staff and invitees. All students, fellows and staff are welcome, as well. For more information go to http://demystifyingmedicine.od.nih.gov Author: George Koob, PhD, NIAAA, NIH and Bin Gao, MD, PhD, NIAAA, NIH Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?18899
Views: 1366 nihvcast
Second Annual Duke-Margolis Conference on Real-World Data and Evidence
 
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Convened by the Robert J. Margolis, MD, Center for Health Policy at Duke University, the Second Annual Duke-Margolis Conference on Real-World Data and Evidence will bring together top experts and speakers to examine topics related to the use of real-world data (RWD) and evidence (RWE) in drug development and regulatory decision-making. Workshop sessions will highlight emerging takeaways from two working papers : “Characterizing the Quality and Relevancy of RWD for Regulatory Purposes”, which will be released ahead of the event, examines the process and factors that should be considered while characterizing RWD quality and relevancy for regulatory purposes “Meeting Regulatory Standards with Fit-For-Purpose RWE”, which is still in active development and will be informed by discussion at this event, focuses on the process for determining the regulatory acceptability of observational studies
Views: 1988 Duke Margolis
Women in Biotech | Defining and Analyzing the Problem || Radcliffe Institute
 
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WELCOME AND OPENING REMARKS Lizabeth Cohen, Dean, Radcliffe Institute, and Howard Mumford Jones Professor of American Studies, Department of History, Harvard University Daniel Carpenter (12:26), Director of the Social Sciences Program, Radcliffe Institute, and Allie S. Freed Professor of Government, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University DEFINING AND ANALYZING THE PROBLEM Laurel Smith-Doerr (23:04), Professor of Sociology and Director of the Institute for Social Science Research, University of Massachusetts Amherst Deborah Dunsire (38:28), President and CEO, Forum Pharmaceuticals Alison Wood Brooks (54:50), Assistant Professor of Business Administration, Harvard Business School Moderated by Monica Higgins (17:44), Kathleen McCartney Professor in Education Leadership, Harvard Graduate School of Education Panel discussion 1:07:52 Audience Q&A 1:17:21
Views: 1880 Harvard University
Physics, Genetic, and Investigative Reasoning in Developmental Biology - Alan Love
 
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September 8, 2016 - NHGRI History of Molecular Biology and Genomics Lecture Series More: https://www.genome.gov/27567057
MURAL WEBINAR: EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF DESIGN THINKING IN ACTION
 
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Design thinking offers a problem-solving approach widely adopted by the most innovative companies and organizations - but how do we truly measure its impact? In this webinar, Professor Jeanne Liedtka of the University of Virginia’s Darden School of Business will report on the results of research conducted at UVA over the past 6 years of over 30 organizations using design thinking in practice to: •Identify the most effective elements actually practiced under the rubric of “design thinking” •Assess design thinking’s value for enhancing innovation outcomes •Evaluate the overall impact of design thinking in practice
Views: 770 MURAL
Prof. Justin Wood, USC - Building newborn minds in virtual worlds
 
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What are the origins of high-level vision: Is this ability hardwired by genes or learned during development? Although researchers have been wrestling with this question for over a century, progress has been hampered by two major limitations: (1) most newborn animals cannot be raised in controlled environments from birth, and (2) most newborn animals cannot be observed and tested for long periods of time. Thus, it has generally not been possible to characterize how specific visual inputs relate to specific cognitive outputs in the newborn brain. To overcome these two limitations, I recently developed an automated, high-throughput controlled-rearing technique. This technique can be used to measure all of a newborn animal’s behavior (9 samples/second, 24 hours/day, 7 days/week) within strictly controlled virtual environments. In this talk, I will describe a series of controlled-rearing experiments that reveal how one high-level visual ability—invariant object recognition—emerges in the newborn brain. Further, I will show how these controlled-rearing data can be linked to models of visual cortex for characterizing the computations underlying newborn vision. More generally, I will argue that controlled rearing can serve as a critical tool for testing between different theories and models, both for developmental psychology and computational neuroscience.
Senior Thesis Showcase 2018
 
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The senior thesis requirement at CMC is challenging and rewarding and seniors endeavor to produce innovative, thoughtful, comprehensive, and well written work. In this second annual Senior Thesis Showcase, seniors across the disciplines presented five- to seven-minute synopses of their capstone project. Hear about their research, motivation, and findings, as well as their overall thesis journey: Brian Chmelik, Michael Choi, Tarah Gilbreth, Mohammed Kaamil Hussain, Siqi “Audrey” Liu, Madison Lodge, Shivani Pandya, Larissa Peltola, and Campbell Streator, all members of CMC's Class of 2018. See more Ath videos: http://tinyurl.com/MMCAth ► Like this video? SUBSCRIBE: http://tinyurl.com/CMCchannel ► Visit our website: http://www.cmc.edu/ ► Follow CMC on FB: https://www.facebook.com/ClaremontMcK... ► Follow CMC on Twitter: https://twitter.com/cmcnews ► Follow CMC on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/cmcnews/
Day 1 - TOPIC #2: Telehealth and Payment
 
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The Role of Telehealth in an Evolving Health Care Environment Workshop 1:00PM-2:30PM TOPIC #2: Telehealth and Payment Panel moderator: Thomas S. Nesbitt, UC Davis Health System Rural Medicare Payment Jeff Stensland, MedPAC Challenges to the traditional payment models Karen E. Edison, University of Missouri Health System Private Pay Manish N. Oza, Wellpoint Comprehensive Health Solutions New models for payment Linda Magno, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Q&A with Audience
Dr. Michael Lu:  "A Fair Shot", presentation at UC Berkeley School of Public Health
 
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On October 26, 2018, The Center of Excellence in Maternal, Child, and Adolescent Health welcomed Dr. Michael Lu, former Director of the Maternal and Child Health Bureau for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, for a presentation about his path to becoming a leader in public health, and historic changes in the field. This video features his presentation and the accompanying audio recording. Dr. Lu is a UC Berkeley School of Public Health Alumni and is currently Senior Associate Dean for Academic, Student & Faculty Affairs at Miliken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. A captioned version of the presentation is coming soon.
The Science Of Creation
 
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Evolution, the great myth of atheism, crumbles beneath the weight of hard facts. This science blockbuster stars Derek Prince.
Views: 60 God Rules
Jim Inhofe - Global Warming Debate
 
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Sen. Jim Inhofe, R-Okla., weighs in on the global warming debate and explains why he considers it an orchestrated hoax.
Views: 7019 OklahomaHorizonTV
Anarchokapitalismus, díl první: Stát je nemorální
 
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Přijďte si poslechnout úvodní přednášku z cyklu Anarchokapitalismus! Popovídáme si o financování státu a daních; podrobíme kritice koncept daní a jejich vybírání z hlediska etiky. Do důsledků promyslíme, co je v pozadí každé regulace i každého zákona; jak lze morálně ospravedlnit jejich násilné vynucování ze strany policie? A nakonec si řekneme něco o státní propagandě a indoktrinaci; důvodech, proč si stát v podstatě může dělat, cokoliv se mu zachce. Přednáší Urza (www.urza.cz).
What's Ahead for Pre-K-12 After the Elections (Full)
 
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At this live event, policymakers, analysts, and Education Week journalists examine how the elections will affect public education policy from the White House and Congress down to the state and local levels, even as educators scramble to get ready for the Every Student Succeeds Act to take full effect. More about the event: http://www.edweek.org/ew/events/2016-election/what-the-2016-election-results-mean-for.html | Complete election coverage: http://www.edweek.org/topics/elections/index.html ____________________ Want more stories about schools across the nation, including the latest news and unique perspectives on education issues? Visit www.edweek.org. About Education Week: Education Week is America’s most trusted source of independent K-12 education news, analysis, and opinion. Our work serves to raise the level of understanding and discourse about education among school and district leaders, policymakers, researchers, teachers, and the public. Published by the nonprofit organization Editorial Projects in Education, Education Week has been providing award-winning coverage of the field for over 35 years. Follow Education Week: - Subscribe to our Channel: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=educationweek - On Facebook at https://www.facebook.com/edweek/ - On Twitter at https://twitter.com/educationweek/ - On LinkedIn at https://www.linkedin.com/company/education-week To license video footage from Editorial Projects in Education please contact the Education Week Library at [email protected]
Views: 230 Education Week
Strategic management
 
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Strategic management involves the formulation and implementation of the major goals and initiatives taken by a company's top management on behalf of owners, based on consideration of resources and an assessment of the internal and external environments in which the organization competes. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Public domain image source in video
Views: 2641 encyclopediacc
Day 1 - Opening Remarks -  Mary Wakefield
 
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The Role of Telehealth in an Evolving Health Care Environment Workshop Mary Wakefield, Health Resources and Services Administration, Project Sponsor
Academic Trajectories of English Language Learners and Former ELLs
 
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Dr. Rachel Slama discusses her findings on English language learners’ proficiency in academic English and the different trajectories of US- and foreign-born ELLs toward achieving proficiency. Discussant Carrie Conaway also reflects on recent changes in Massachusetts in response to these and related findings.
Webinar 2: Going Deeper into Planning the Design
 
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This session provides an in-depth review of the critical components of experimental design. The content of these videos does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Institute of Education Sciences or the U.S. Department of Education, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
George Berkeley | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: George Berkeley Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= George Berkeley (; 12 March 1685 – 14 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others). This theory denies the existence of material substance and instead contends that familiar objects like tables and chairs are only ideas in the minds of perceivers and, as a result, cannot exist without being perceived. Berkeley is also known for his critique of abstraction, an important premise in his argument for immaterialism. Berkeley was the namesake of the city of Berkeley, California, which is perhaps most famous as the home of the prestigious university. In 1709, Berkeley published his first major work, An Essay towards a New Theory of Vision, in which he discussed the limitations of human vision and advanced the theory that the proper objects of sight are not material objects, but light and colour. This foreshadowed his chief philosophical work, A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, in 1710, which, after its poor reception, he rewrote in dialogue form and published under the title Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous in 1713.In this book, Berkeley's views were represented by Philonous (Greek: "lover of mind"), while Hylas (Greek: "matter") embodies the Irish thinker's opponents, in particular John Locke. Berkeley argued against Isaac Newton's doctrine of absolute space, time and motion in De Motu (On Motion), published 1721. His arguments were a precursor to the views of Mach and Einstein. In 1732, he published Alciphron, a Christian apologetic against the free-thinkers, and in 1734, he published The Analyst, a critique of the foundations of calculus, which was influential in the development of mathematics. His last major philosophical work, Siris (1744), begins by advocating the medicinal use of tar water and then continues to discuss a wide range of topics, including science, philosophy, and theology. Interest in Berkeley's work increased after World War II because he tackled many of the issues of paramount interest to philosophy in the 20th century, such as the problems of perception, the difference between primary and secondary qualities, and the importance of language.
Views: 15 wikipedia tts
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962; second edition 1970; third edition 1996; fourth edition 2012) is a book about the history of science by the philosopher Thomas S. Kuhn. Its publication was a landmark event in the history, philosophy, and sociology of scientific knowledge. Kuhn challenged the then prevailing view of progress in "normal science". Normal scientific progress was viewed as "development-by-accumulation" of accepted facts and theories. Kuhn argued for an episodic model in which periods of such conceptual continuity in normal science were interrupted by periods of revolutionary science. The discovery of "anomalies" during revolutions in science leads to new paradigms. New paradigms then ask new questions of old data, move beyond the mere "puzzle-solving" of the previous paradigm, change the rules of the game and the "map" directing new research.For example, Kuhn's analysis of the Copernican Revolution emphasized that, in its beginning, it did not offer more accurate predictions of celestial events, such as planetary positions, than the Ptolemaic system, but instead appealed to some practitioners based on a promise of better, simpler, solutions that might be developed at some point in the future. Kuhn called the core concepts of an ascendant revolution its "paradigms" and thereby launched this word into widespread analogical use in the second half of the 20th century. Kuhn's insistence that a paradigm shift was a mélange of sociology, enthusiasm and scientific promise, but not a logically determinate procedure, caused an uproar in reaction to his work. Kuhn addressed concerns in the 1969 postscript to the second edition. For some commentators The Structure of Scientific Revolutions introduced a realistic humanism into the core of science, while for others the nobility of science was tarnished by Kuhn's introduction of an irrational element into the heart of its greatest achievements.
Views: 32 wikipedia tts
Structure of Scientific Revolutions | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Structure_of_Scientific_Revolutions 00:02:18 1 History 00:05:46 2 Synopsis 00:05:55 2.1 Basic approach 00:08:09 2.2 Historical examples of chemistry 00:09:34 2.3 Copernican Revolution 00:13:14 2.4 Coherence 00:16:53 2.5 Phases 00:19:12 2.6 Incommensurability 00:22:56 2.7 Exemplar 00:24:20 3 Kuhn on scientific progress 00:26:39 4 Influence and reception 00:27:19 4.1 Philosophy 00:28:58 4.2 Sociology 00:30:48 4.3 Economics 00:32:12 4.4 Political science 00:33:22 5 Criticisms 00:34:59 5.1 Concept of paradigm 00:35:53 5.2 Incommensurability of paradigms 00:41:36 5.3 Incommensurability and perception 00:44:14 6 Awards and honors 00:44:43 7 Editions 00:46:28 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.888034194800564 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962; second edition 1970; third edition 1996; fourth edition 2012) is a book about the history of science by the philosopher Thomas S. Kuhn. Its publication was a landmark event in the history, philosophy, and sociology of scientific knowledge. Kuhn challenged the then prevailing view of progress in "normal science". Normal scientific progress was viewed as "development-by-accumulation" of accepted facts and theories. Kuhn argued for an episodic model in which periods of such conceptual continuity in normal science were interrupted by periods of revolutionary science. The discovery of "anomalies" during revolutions in science leads to new paradigms. New paradigms then ask new questions of old data, move beyond the mere "puzzle-solving" of the previous paradigm, change the rules of the game and the "map" directing new research.For example, Kuhn's analysis of the Copernican Revolution emphasized that, in its beginning, it did not offer more accurate predictions of celestial events, such as planetary positions, than the Ptolemaic system, but instead appealed to some practitioners based on a promise of better, simpler, solutions that might be developed at some point in the future. Kuhn called the core concepts of an ascendant revolution its "paradigms" and thereby launched this word into widespread analogical use in the second half of the 20th century. Kuhn's insistence that a paradigm shift was a mélange of sociology, enthusiasm and scientific promise, but not a logically determinate procedure, caused an uproar in reaction to his work. Kuhn addressed concerns in the 1969 postscript to the second edition. For some commentators The Structure of Scientific Revolutions introduced a realistic humanism into the core of science, while for others the nobility of science was tarnished by Kuhn's introduction of an irrational element into the heart of its greatest achievements.
Views: 15 wikipedia tts

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